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Reports, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessCase Report
Pseudoaneurysm of the Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Due to Cholecystitis
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are a rare occurrence, comprising of approximately 10% of visceral artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. The cause is normally due to trauma, iatrogenic or pancreatitis. We present a case of a patient re-presenting to hospital following treatment of [...] Read more.
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are a rare occurrence, comprising of approximately 10% of visceral artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. The cause is normally due to trauma, iatrogenic or pancreatitis. We present a case of a patient re-presenting to hospital following treatment of acute cholecystitis with epigastric pain, dysphagia, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting and an acute kidney injury. Following cholecystostomy, intravenous fluids and conservative treatment for her symptoms, she failed to improve significantly and was found to have a 6 mm pseudoaneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery on day twenty of her admission. She was transferred to a tertiary centre and was treated with an embolisation and recovered well from the procedure. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Learning from Anaesthetists: A Technique for Safe and Effective Facial Nerve Monitoring
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
To develop a technique to reliably secure facial nerve monitoring electrodes, NeurosignTM facial nerve monitor electrodes were attached as per the manufacturer’s instructions. The electrodes were secured with ½ inch steristripsTM before connecting leads were brought to the contralateral side of [...] Read more.
To develop a technique to reliably secure facial nerve monitoring electrodes, NeurosignTM facial nerve monitor electrodes were attached as per the manufacturer’s instructions. The electrodes were secured with ½ inch steristripsTM before connecting leads were brought to the contralateral side of the face and a single torque loop was created and secured with either more Steri-StripsTM, Micropore tapeTM, or a TegedermTM. By creating a single torque loop, a buffer between the electrode and its anchor point to the contralateral face was formed. This allowed for the secure attachment of leads from the electrodes by removing tension, thereby reducing the likelihood of displacement. We have used this technique successfully for the last three years in over 50 parotid procedures and 50 middle ear explorations. Facial nerve monitoring is an important surgical tool used in otology and head and neck surgery. Using torque loops when preparing a patient for surgery prevents the dislodgement of electrodes during operation, thereby ensuring the safety of the patient in a sometimes perilous environment. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
When Clinical History Addresses the Diagnosis in a Case of Uncommon Meningitis
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Migraine pain is usually cyclic and may be evocated by inflammatory mediators released around the nerves and blood vessels. Acute migraine pain is more common in women than in men, and correlates with age. In this study, we report the development of an [...] Read more.
Migraine pain is usually cyclic and may be evocated by inflammatory mediators released around the nerves and blood vessels. Acute migraine pain is more common in women than in men, and correlates with age. In this study, we report the development of an acute migraine attack in a young man (32 years old), which led to his admission to the emergency department. The positive functional brain changes recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG) during the migraine attack, and the non-contrast brain computed tomography scan showed the presence of an arachnoid cyst, which explained the acute migraine attack inducing a misdiagnosis. Using the case described herein, we aim to draw the attention of clinic/scientific communities toward the existence of brain infections in absence of the typical symptoms (e.g., fever and/or rigor nucalis). Considering this case, we propose that when a diagnosis is uncertain the invasive liquor test should be performed. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Cancer with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Case Report
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Peritoneal involvement as a metastatic site of squamous cell skin cancer is exceptionally rare. The current work analyzes a 52-year old male with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell nose carcinoma (cSCC) that was initially treated with surgery and platinum-based concurrent chemoradiation. Five years later, [...] Read more.
Peritoneal involvement as a metastatic site of squamous cell skin cancer is exceptionally rare. The current work analyzes a 52-year old male with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell nose carcinoma (cSCC) that was initially treated with surgery and platinum-based concurrent chemoradiation. Five years later, he presented jaundice and hypercalcemia. Further imaging revealed diffused liver, peritoneal and paraaortic lymph node metastases without evidence of locoregional recurrence. The patient underwent liver biopsy, which confirmed the diagnosis. High-risk features for metastasizing can be considered the maximum clinical diameter, the anatomical subsite (localization of the primary tumor in the ear and retroauricular area, cheek and lip are considered to significantly increase the risk of distant metastasis), poor histological differentiation, perineural invasion and lesions with a thickness of more than 2.0 mm. Late relapse that involves only disseminated abdominal disease is very uncommon and may justify closer follow-up and more aggressive chemotherapy in high-risk patients. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage with a Dramatic Outcome Due to Maternal Anti CD36 Antibodies
Received: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) results from maternal immunization against fetal platelet-specific antigens (HPA) inherited from the father. Most cases involve HPA located on glycoproteins (GP) IbIX, IaIIa and IIbIIIa. Iso-immunizations can also occur in the absence of expression of membrane proteins, such as [...] Read more.
Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) results from maternal immunization against fetal platelet-specific antigens (HPA) inherited from the father. Most cases involve HPA located on glycoproteins (GP) IbIX, IaIIa and IIbIIIa. Iso-immunizations can also occur in the absence of expression of membrane proteins, such as GPIIb or GPIIIa in Glanzmann patients. CD36 (also called glycoprotein GPIV) deficiency is observed in 3 to 5% of Asian and African populations. We report here the case of a 41-year-old Canadian woman originated from Africa, who delivered a male dead new-born at 39 weeks of gestation. A massive intracranial haemorrhage was identified as being the obvious cause of death. No platelet antibody against GPIbIX, IaIIa, and IIbIIIa was identified by the gold-standard Monoclonal Antibody-specific Immobilization of Platelet Antigens (MAIPA) assay. Surprisingly, anti CD36 iso-antibodies were identified in the maternal serum with a new bead-based multiplex assay. The CD36 gene was sequenced for both parents, and a mutation was identified on Exon 10 of the mother’s CD36 gene, which was absent for the father: NM_000072.3:c.975T>G inducing a STOP codon at position 325 of the mature protein. The absence of CD36 expression on the mother’s platelets was confirmed by flow cytometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Pediatrics)
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Open AccessCase Report
Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma and Late Onset of Lung Distant Metastasis. A Case Report
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), which includes the papillary and follicular variants, is a common neoplasm. DTC has a very high cure rate and is treated surgically, usually followed by ablation of the post-surgical remnant with radioiodine. Case Presentation: The case of a [...] Read more.
Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), which includes the papillary and follicular variants, is a common neoplasm. DTC has a very high cure rate and is treated surgically, usually followed by ablation of the post-surgical remnant with radioiodine. Case Presentation: The case of a 68-year-old male patient who underwent a minimally invasive complete thyroidectomy on July 4, 2007 for capsulated follicular carcinoma with margins of excision exempted from neoplastic infiltration (AJCC 2002 pT2 PNX PMX) is presented. Discussion: As the patient showed the presence of a pulmonary metastasis after 11 years, the potential implications of DTC follow-up management are here summarized. Conclusions: Follow up must be continued throughout life. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Palatal Speech Bulb—A Case Study
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
Palatal defects of the oral cavity can be either congenital or acquired following trauma or surgical excision of malignant disease. Palatal defects can greatly affect function and subsequent quality of life. Rehabilitation using a removable obturator can be a preferable treatment option as [...] Read more.
Palatal defects of the oral cavity can be either congenital or acquired following trauma or surgical excision of malignant disease. Palatal defects can greatly affect function and subsequent quality of life. Rehabilitation using a removable obturator can be a preferable treatment option as it allows regular review post-surgery. This case study reports on the design and construction of a removable “speech bulb” obturator. A 50-year-old female patient presented complaining of nasal regurgitation and looseness of her current palatal obturator. She had previously undergone wide surgical excision of her soft palate under general anaesthesia due to adenoid cystic carcinoma. Treatment consisted of the provision of a new removable obturator, paying careful attention to the design of the “speech bulb” itself. The design of the “speech bulb” is crucial to optimise function, and the method of prosthesis fabrication is fully described. This case highlights the impact of obturator fit on a patient’s quality of life and will be of benefit to clinicians from many disciplines including dentists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT) surgeons and speech and language therapists. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Early Treatment with Growth Hormone (GH) and Rehabilitation Recovers Hearing in a Child with Cerebral Palsy
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Neonatal hearing loss is one of the most common anomalies and is frequently associated with delivery problems. The effects of growth hormone (GH) on brain regeneration after an injury are well known. This paper looks at a male child diagnosed with cerebral palsy, [...] Read more.
Neonatal hearing loss is one of the most common anomalies and is frequently associated with delivery problems. The effects of growth hormone (GH) on brain regeneration after an injury are well known. This paper looks at a male child diagnosed with cerebral palsy, psychomotor affectation, left spastic hemiparesis, and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss after fetal distress due to ruptured membranes before the delivery of more than 30 hours of evolution and several episodes of severe hypoglycemia. From 3.5 months of age, we treated him with GH (0.04 mg/kg/day), Melatonin (5 mg/day and 6 months later 10 mg/day) and rehabilitation, for a period of 14 months; at discharge, the child fully recovered all the disabilities produced by his cerebral palsy, including normal hearing; GMFM-88 increased from 7.84% to 48.23%; Battelle scores increased from 2 to 9 after 7 months of treatment, and to 30, 1 year after discharge. Most likely hearing loss was recovered due to the effect of GH on the production of hair cells from stem cells (only present in very young children) in the cochlear sensory epithelium. This is the first case of recovery of hearing loss in humans after GH administration. Moreover, GH administration is useful and safe for early treatment of cerebral palsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Pediatrics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Reports in 2018
Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessCase Report
An Unusual Case of Vomiting Caused by Myeloid Sarcoma
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary mass consisting of myeloblasts that may present simultaneously or precede a bone marrow disorder. It has been reported to occur without a known preexisting diagnosis of acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or a myeloproliferative neoplasm and this is known [...] Read more.
Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary mass consisting of myeloblasts that may present simultaneously or precede a bone marrow disorder. It has been reported to occur without a known preexisting diagnosis of acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or a myeloproliferative neoplasm and this is known as primary myeloid sarcoma. Here, we report a case of an 80-year-old male who presented with intermittent vomiting and significant weight loss for 3 months. The imaging and histological findings were consistent with a mesenteric myeloid sarcoma encasing the coeliac trunk and superior mesenteric artery, abutting and obstructing the proximal small bowel, causing subacute bowel obstruction. Systemic chemotherapy with low dose cytarabine achieved a reduction in the size of myeloid sarcoma and improved patient’s symptomatology but unfortunately our patient succumbed to progression 11 months later. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Food-Related Atrial Fibrillation? The Potential Role of Biogenic Amines in “Nutri-Arrhythmias” Genesis
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia: a disorganized electrical atrial activity leading to irregular ventricular beats. Its most common risk factors include high blood pressure, congenital and valvular heart diseases, aging, heart failure and coronary heart diseases. Other risk [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia: a disorganized electrical atrial activity leading to irregular ventricular beats. Its most common risk factors include high blood pressure, congenital and valvular heart diseases, aging, heart failure and coronary heart diseases. Other risk factors include excessive alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, diabetes mellitus and thyrotoxicosis. However, many cases are not associated with any of these risk factors: probably, in these patients, immunological, functional and even dietary mechanisms may be responsible to induce cardiac arrhythmias. Several studies have focused on immunological and neurohumoral mechanisms; however, little information is available about the potential relationship between dietary patterns and atrial fibrillation episodes. This case report describes a potential correlation between biogenic amines in ingested food and recurrent atrial fibrillation onset in a 61-years old man in absence of a remarkable clinical history and of the most common risk factors. The nutritional team instituted a food protocol: a low calories diet and eliminating biogenic amines-rich foods. During the follow-up (16 months), there was a noticeable weight loss and no arrhythmic episodes happened again. This clinical case provides evidence for a possible new relationship between some kinds of food and heart conduction (defining the very novel field of arrhythmogenic foods and of “nutri-arrhythmias”), recognizing biogenic amines-rich foods abuse as the potential trigger and substrate for atrial fibrillation. Therefore, we suggested that clinical history in patients with new onset AF should also include questions concerning the ingestion of histamine-rich foodstuffs (or other amines-rich food) and alcohol consumption: their effects may result to be synergistic in the alteration of cardiac rhythm and may explain the recurrence of an unexplained atrial fibrillation. Full article
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