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High-Throughput, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Emerging Technologies in Mass Spectrometry-Based DNA Adductomics
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020013
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
The measurement of DNA adducts, the covalent modifications of DNA upon the exposure to the environmental and dietary genotoxicants and endogenously produced electrophiles, provides molecular evidence for DNA damage. With the recent improvements in the sensitivity and scanning speed of mass spectrometry (MS) [...] Read more.
The measurement of DNA adducts, the covalent modifications of DNA upon the exposure to the environmental and dietary genotoxicants and endogenously produced electrophiles, provides molecular evidence for DNA damage. With the recent improvements in the sensitivity and scanning speed of mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS, it is now feasible to screen for the totality of DNA damage in the human genome through DNA adductomics approaches. Several MS platforms have been used in DNA adductomic analysis, each of which has its strengths and limitations. The loss of 2′-deoxyribose from the modified nucleoside upon collision-induced dissociation is the main transition feature utilized in the screening of DNA adducts. Several advanced data-dependent and data-independent scanning techniques originated from proteomics and metabolomics have been tailored for DNA adductomics. The field of DNA adductomics is an emerging technology in human exposure assessment. As the analytical technology matures and bioinformatics tools become available for analysis of the MS data, DNA adductomics can advance our understanding about the role of chemical exposures in DNA damage and disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adductomics: Elucidating the Environmental Causes of Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Adductomics of Isolevuglandins: Oxidation of IsoLG Pyrrole Intermediates Generates Pyrrole–Pyrrole Crosslinks and Lactams
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020012
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Isoprostane endoperoxides generated by free radical-induced oxidation of arachidonates, and prostaglandin endoperoxides generated through enzymatic cyclooxygenation of arachidonate, rearrange nonenzymatically to isoprostanes and a family of stereo and structurally isomeric γ-ketoaldehyde seco-isoprostanes, collectively known as isolevuglandins (isoLGs). IsoLGs are stealthy toxins, and free [...] Read more.
Isoprostane endoperoxides generated by free radical-induced oxidation of arachidonates, and prostaglandin endoperoxides generated through enzymatic cyclooxygenation of arachidonate, rearrange nonenzymatically to isoprostanes and a family of stereo and structurally isomeric γ-ketoaldehyde seco-isoprostanes, collectively known as isolevuglandins (isoLGs). IsoLGs are stealthy toxins, and free isoLGs are not detected in vivo. Rather, covalent adducts are found to incorporate lysyl ε-amino residues of proteins or ethanolamino residues of phospholipids. In vitro studies have revealed that adduction occurs within seconds and is uniquely prone to cause protein–protein crosslinks. IsoLGs accelerate the formation of the type of amyloid beta oligomers that have been associated with neurotoxicity. Under air, isoLG-derived pyrroles generated initially are readily oxidized to lactams and undergo rapid oxidative coupling to pyrrole–pyrrole crosslinked dimers, and to more highly oxygenated derivatives of those dimers. We have now found that pure isoLG-derived pyrroles, which can be generated under anoxic conditions, do not readily undergo oxidative coupling. Rather, dimer formation only occurs after an induction period by an autocatalytic oxidative coupling. The stable free-radical TEMPO abolishes the induction period, catalyzing rapid oxidative coupling. The amine N-oxide TMAO is similarly effective in catalyzing the oxidative coupling of isoLG pyrroles. N-acetylcysteine abolishes the generation of pyrrole–pyrrole crosslinks. Instead pyrrole-cysteine adducts are produced. Two unified single-electron transfer mechanisms are proposed for crosslink and pyrrole-cysteine adduct formation from isoLG-pyrroles, as well as for their oxidation to lactams and hydroxylactams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adductomics: Elucidating the Environmental Causes of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Screening of Combinatorial Peptide Libraries by Spatially Ordered Beads Immobilized on Conventional Glass Slides
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020011
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries is a proven procedure for the identification of protein-binding ligands. The demand for binders with high affinity and specificity towards various targets has surged in the biomedical and pharmaceutical field in recent years. The traditional peptide screening involves [...] Read more.
Screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries is a proven procedure for the identification of protein-binding ligands. The demand for binders with high affinity and specificity towards various targets has surged in the biomedical and pharmaceutical field in recent years. The traditional peptide screening involves tedious steps such as affinity selection, bead picking, sequencing, and characterization. Herein, we present a high-throughput “all-on-one chip” system to avoid slow and technically complex bead picking steps. On a traditional glass slide provided with an electrically conductive tape, beads of a combinatorial peptide library are aligned and immobilized by application of a precision sieve. Subsequently, the chip is incubated with a fluorophore-labeled target protein. In a fluorescence scan followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, high-affinity binders are directly and unambiguously sequenced with high accuracy without picking of the positive beads. The use of an optimized ladder sequencing approach improved the accuracy of the de-novo sequencing step to nearly 100%. The new technique was validated by employing a FLAG-based model system, identifying new peptide binders for the monoclonal M2 anti-FLAG antibody, and was finally utilized to search for IgG-binding peptides. In the present format, more than 30,000 beads can be screened on one slide. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Mass Spectrometry-Based Methodologies for Targeted and Untargeted Identification of Protein Covalent Adducts (Adductomics): Current Status and Challenges
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020009
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Protein covalent adducts formed upon exposure to reactive (mainly electrophilic) chemicals may lead to the development of a wide range of deleterious health outcomes. Therefore, the identification of protein covalent adducts constitutes a huge opportunity for a better understanding of events underlying diseases [...] Read more.
Protein covalent adducts formed upon exposure to reactive (mainly electrophilic) chemicals may lead to the development of a wide range of deleterious health outcomes. Therefore, the identification of protein covalent adducts constitutes a huge opportunity for a better understanding of events underlying diseases and for the development of biomarkers which may constitute effective tools for disease diagnosis/prognosis, for the application of personalized medicine approaches and for accurately assessing human exposure to chemical toxicants. The currently available mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies, are clearly the most suitable for the analysis of protein covalent modifications, providing accuracy, sensitivity, unbiased identification of the modified residue and conjugates along with quantitative information. However, despite the huge technological advances in MS instrumentation and bioinformatics tools, the identification of low abundant protein covalent adducts is still challenging. This review is aimed at summarizing the MS-based methodologies currently used for the identification of protein covalent adducts and the strategies developed to overcome the analytical challenges, involving not only sample pre-treatment procedures but also distinct MS and data analysis approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adductomics: Elucidating the Environmental Causes of Disease)
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Open AccessReview
The Mercapturomic Profile of Health and Non-Communicable Diseases
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020010
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
The mercapturate pathway is a unique metabolic circuitry that detoxifies electrophiles upon adducts formation with glutathione. Since its discovery over a century ago, most of the knowledge on the mercapturate pathway has been provided from biomonitoring studies on environmental exposure to toxicants. However, [...] Read more.
The mercapturate pathway is a unique metabolic circuitry that detoxifies electrophiles upon adducts formation with glutathione. Since its discovery over a century ago, most of the knowledge on the mercapturate pathway has been provided from biomonitoring studies on environmental exposure to toxicants. However, the mercapturate pathway-related metabolites that is formed in humans—the mercapturomic profile—in health and disease is yet to be established. In this paper, we put forward the hypothesis that these metabolites are key pathophysiologic factors behind the onset and development of non-communicable chronic inflammatory diseases. This review goes from the evidence in the formation of endogenous metabolites undergoing the mercapturate pathway to the methodologies for their assessment and their association with cancer and respiratory, neurologic and cardiometabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adductomics: Elucidating the Environmental Causes of Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Dark Proteome Database: Studies on Dark Proteins
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020008
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
The dark proteome, as we define it, is the part of the proteome where 3D structure has not been observed either by homology modeling or by experimental characterization in the protein universe. From the 550.116 proteins available in Swiss-Prot (as of July 2016), [...] Read more.
The dark proteome, as we define it, is the part of the proteome where 3D structure has not been observed either by homology modeling or by experimental characterization in the protein universe. From the 550.116 proteins available in Swiss-Prot (as of July 2016), 43.2% of the eukarya universe and 49.2% of the virus universe are part of the dark proteome. In bacteria and archaea, the percentage of the dark proteome presence is significantly less, at 12.6% and 13.3% respectively. In this work, we present a necessary step to complete the dark proteome picture by introducing the map of the dark proteome in the human and in other model organisms of special importance to mankind. The most significant result is that around 40% to 50% of the proteome of these organisms are still in the dark, where the higher percentages belong to higher eukaryotes (mouse and human organisms). Due to the amount of darkness present in the human organism being more than 50%, deeper studies were made, including the identification of ‘dark’ genes that are responsible for the production of so-called dark proteins, as well as the identification of the ‘dark’ tissues where dark proteins are over represented, namely, the heart, cervical mucosa, and natural killer cells. This is a step forward in the direction of gaining a deeper knowledge of the human dark proteome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Tools in Computational Proteomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Vertical Scanning Interferometry for Label-Free Detection of Peptide-Antibody Interactions
High-Throughput 2019, 8(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht8020007
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Peptide microarrays are a fast-developing field enabling the mapping of linear epitopes in the immune response to vaccinations or diseases and high throughput studying of protein-protein interactions. In this respect, a rapid label-free measurement of protein layer topographies in the array format is [...] Read more.
Peptide microarrays are a fast-developing field enabling the mapping of linear epitopes in the immune response to vaccinations or diseases and high throughput studying of protein-protein interactions. In this respect, a rapid label-free measurement of protein layer topographies in the array format is of great interest but is also a great challenge due to the extremely low aspect ratios of the peptide spots. We have demonstrated the potential of vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) for a detailed morphological analysis of peptide arrays and binding antibodies. The VSI technique is shown to scan an array area of 5.1 square millimeters within 3–4 min at a resolution of 1.4 μm lateral and 0.1 nm vertical in the full automation mode. Topographies obtained by VSI do match the one obtained by AFM measurements, demonstrating the accuracy of the technique. A detailed topology of peptide-antibody layers on single spots was measured. Two different measurement regions are distinguished according to the antibody concentration. In the case of weakly diluted serum, the thickness of the antibody layer is independent of the serum dilution and corresponds to the physical thickness of the accumulated antibody layer. In strongly diluted serum, the thickness measured via VSI is linearly proportional to the serum dilution. Full article
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