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Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 91, Issue 4 (August 2023) – 5 articles

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0 pages, 1817 KiB  
Systematic Review
Benefits from Incorporating Virtual Reality in Pulmonary Rehabilitation of COPD Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Irini Patsaki, Vasiliki Avgeri, Theodora Rigoulia, Theodoros Zekis, George A. Koumantakis and Eirini Grammatopoulou
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(4), 324-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91040026 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2844 | Correction
Abstract
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation. Patient participation in Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programs has a beneficial effect on disease management, improving patients’ functional capacity and quality of life. As an alternative to traditional programs or as a complementary [...] Read more.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation. Patient participation in Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) programs has a beneficial effect on disease management, improving patients’ functional capacity and quality of life. As an alternative to traditional programs or as a complementary activity, the inclusion of virtual reality (VR) games is proposed. The aim of this research study was to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating VR in the pulmonary rehabilitation program of patients with COPD. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed, and Pedro from January 2014 to March 2022. The search involved screening for studies examining the effectiveness of enhancing PR with VR. The PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale was chosen as the tool to assess the quality of studies. A meta-analysis was performed where possible. Six studies were included in this systematic review. The PEDro scale showed five studies of good methodological quality and one of fair quality. The variables examined were aerobic capacity for exercise, lung function, and anxiety and depression, with significant improvement regarding 6MWT and FEV1 (p < 0.05). There was variability noted in the VR applications and the proposed rehabilitation that the experimental groups followed. The application of VR is recommended for COPD patients, in combination with conventional PR. VR was found to be effective in increasing therapeutic effect and should be considered as a mean of increasing accessibility to PR. Therefore, further research, as well as additional RCTs regarding the effectiveness of VR in patients with COPD, seems necessary. Full article
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14 pages, 2669 KiB  
Article
A Machine Learning-Based Model to Predict In-Hospital Mortality of Lung Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study of 523,959 Cases
by Que N. N. Tran, Minh-Khang Le, Tetsuo Kondo and Takeshi Moriguchi
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(4), 310-323; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91040025 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Background: Stratify new lung cancer patients based on the risk of in-hospital mortality rate after diagnosis. Methods: 522,941 lung cancer cases with available data on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were analyzed for the predicted probability based on six fundamental variables [...] Read more.
Background: Stratify new lung cancer patients based on the risk of in-hospital mortality rate after diagnosis. Methods: 522,941 lung cancer cases with available data on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were analyzed for the predicted probability based on six fundamental variables including age, gender, tumor size, T, N, and AJCC stages. The patients were randomly assigned to the training (n = 115,145) and validation datasets (n = 13,017). The remaining cohort with missing values (n = 394,779) was then combined with the primary lung tumour datasets (n = 1018) from The Cancer Genome Atlas, Lung Adenocarcinoma and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma projects (TCGA-LUAD & TCGA-LUSC) for external validation and sensitivity analysis. Results: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed high discriminatory power in the training and internal validation cohorts (Area under the curve [AUC] of 0.78 (95%CI = 0.78–0.79) and 0.78 (95%CI = 0.77–0.79), respectively), whereas that of the model on external validation data was 0.759 (95%CI = 0.757–0.761). We developed a static nomogram, a web app, and a risk table based on a logistic regression model using algorithm-selected variables. Conclusions: Our model can stratify lung cancer patients into high- and low-risk of in-hospital mortality to assist clinical further planning. Full article
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9 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compound Identification-Based Tuberculosis Screening among TB Suspects: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study
by Mayank Badola, Anurag Agrawal, Debabrata Roy, Richa Sinha, Avisham Goyal and Narayan Jeet
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(4), 301-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91040024 - 12 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) affects a third of the global population, and a large population of infected individuals still remain undiagnosed—making the visible burden only the tip of the iceberg. The detection of tuberculosis in close-proximity patients is one of the key priorities for attaining [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) affects a third of the global population, and a large population of infected individuals still remain undiagnosed—making the visible burden only the tip of the iceberg. The detection of tuberculosis in close-proximity patients is one of the key priorities for attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of TB elimination by 2030. With the current battery of screening tests failing to cover this need, the authors of this paper examined a simple and inexpensive point-of-care breath analyzer (TSI-3000(I)), which is based on detecting the volatile organic compounds that are emitted from infected cells and released in exhaled breath as a screening tool for the detection of TB. A single-center pilot study for assessing the diagnostic accuracy of the point-of-care Tuberculosis Breath Analyzer was conducted, and it was compared against the WHO-recommended TrueNat assay, which is a rapid molecular test and was also treated as the reference standard in this study. Of the 334 enrolled participants with TB signs/symptoms, 42.51% were TrueNat positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of the Tuberculosis Breath Analyzer was found to be 95.7%, with a specificity of 91.3% and a ROC area of 0.935. The test kit showed considerable/significant high sensitivity and specificity as reliability indicators. The performance of the Tuberculosis Breath Analyzer tested was found to be comparable in efficiency to that of the TrueNat assay. A large cohort-based multicentric study is feasibly required to further validate and extrapolate the results of the pilot study. Full article
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13 pages, 571 KiB  
Review
Open and Closed Triple Inhaler Therapy in Patients with Uncontrolled Asthma
by Serafeim-Chrysovalantis Kotoulas, Ioanna Tsiouprou, Kalliopi Domvri, Polyxeni Ntontsi, Athanasia Pataka and Konstantinos Porpodis
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(4), 288-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91040023 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a class of inhalers that has recently been included as add-on therapy in the GINA guidelines, either in a single inhaler device with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists (ICS + LABA) (closed triple inhaler therapy) or in a [...] Read more.
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a class of inhalers that has recently been included as add-on therapy in the GINA guidelines, either in a single inhaler device with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists (ICS + LABA) (closed triple inhaler therapy) or in a separate one (open triple inhaler therapy). This review summarizes the existing evidence on the addition of LAMAs in patients with persistently uncontrolled asthma despite ICS + LABA treatment based on clinical efficacy in the reduction of asthma symptoms and exacerbations, the improvement in lung function, and its safety profile. Full article
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10 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
Application and Technical Principles of Catheter High-Frequency Jet Ventilation
by Peter Musil, Stefan Harsanyi, Pavol Torok, Monika Paulikova, Didier Moens, Ladislav Kalas and Peter Kalas
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(4), 278-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91040022 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2292
Abstract
The aim of this publication is to analyze the topic of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), namely catheter HFJV (C-HFJV), from a mathematical–physical as well as a clinical point of view. There are known issues with applying anesthesia and artificial lung ventilation (ALV) during [...] Read more.
The aim of this publication is to analyze the topic of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), namely catheter HFJV (C-HFJV), from a mathematical–physical as well as a clinical point of view. There are known issues with applying anesthesia and artificial lung ventilation (ALV) during surgical procedures in the upper airways, e.g., during bronchoscopy or tracheostomy. The principles, advantages, and disadvantages of HFJV are discussed in context with basic physical principles to clarify the proper use of this method. The basic technical principles of catheter construction, as well as its functional properties from a biophysical point of view, are introduced. Also, the placement of the catheter in the airways, the set-up of the HFJV ventilator, and the indications as well as the risks and contraindications of the use of C-HFJV are analyzed. This leads to the explanation of potentially optimal techniques for C-HFJV applications. In this article, we present the positive effects of C-HFJV even with complications such as bacterial or viral pneumonia, including COVID-19. In conclusion, we offer recommendations for clinical practice obtained from a literature review and from our rich clinical experience. Full article
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