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Open AccessArticle

Production of a Biosurfactant by Cunninghamella echinulata Using Renewable Substrates and Its Applications in Enhanced Oil Spill Recovery

1
National Postdoctoral Program (PNPD-CAPES), Postgraduate Program in Development of Environmental Processes, Catholic University of Pernambuco, 50.500-900 Recife, PE, Brazil
2
Nucleus of Research in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Catholic University of Pernambuco, 50050-590 Recife, PE, Brazil
3
Doctorate in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-420 Recife, PE, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids2040063
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants: Trends and Applications)
This study aimed to evaluate the production of a surfactant by Cunninghamella echinulata, using agro-industrial residues, corn steep liquor (CSL), and soybean oil waste (SOW). The study had a factorial design, using as a variable response to the reduction of surface tension. C. echinulata was able to produce biosurfactant in assay, CSL (8.82%) and SOW (2%). The results showed that the biosurfactant was successfully produced by C. echinulata and had attractive properties, such as a low surface tension (31.7 mN/m), a yield of 5.18 g/L at 120 h of cultivation, and an anionic profile. It also achieved a reduction in surface tension stability in a wide range of pH values, temperatures, and salinity values. The biosurfactant produced by C. echinulata showed an absence of toxicity to Artemia salina. The influence of the biosurfactant on the viscosity of engine oil, burnt engine oil, diesel, soybean oil post-frying, canola oil, and water was investigated. The results reveal a mechanism for the decrease of the viscosity using hydrophobic substrates and the new biosurfactant solution at 1.5% of the (CMC). This enables the formulation of a low-cost culture medium alternative, based on corn steep liquor and the reuse of soybean oil after frying to produce a biosurfactant. Additionally, performance of the biosurfactant isolated from C. echinulata showed an excellent ability to remove spilled oil, such as diesel (98.7%) and kerosene (92.3%) from marine sand. View Full-Text
Keywords: tensioactive; agro-industrials residues; factorial design; Cunninghamella echinulate; removal of pollutants tensioactive; agro-industrials residues; factorial design; Cunninghamella echinulate; removal of pollutants
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Souza, P.M.; Andrade Silva, N.R.; Souza, D.G.; Lima e Silva, T.A.; Freitas-Silva, M.C.; Andrade, R.F.S.; Silva, G.K.B.; Albuquerque, C.D.C.; Messias, A.S.; Campos-Takaki, G.M. Production of a Biosurfactant by Cunninghamella echinulata Using Renewable Substrates and Its Applications in Enhanced Oil Spill Recovery. Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2, 63.

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