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Open AccessArticle

Increasing Uniformity of Biosurfactant Production in Starmerella bombicola via the Expression of Chimeric Cytochrome P450s

1
Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis (InBio.be), Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids2040042
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants: Trends and Applications)
Sophorolipids are one of the best known microbial biosurfactants and are produced by several yeast species. The best studied producer is Starmerella bombicola, a non-pathogenic yeast associated in nature with bumblebees. Sophorolipids are built up of the rare disaccharide sophorose, which is attached to a fatty acid through a glyosidic bound. Sophorolipids produced by S. bombicola mainly contain oleic acid as the incorporated hydrophobic group. Other chain lengths can, to a certain content, be incorporated by feeding the yeast with substrates of alternative chain lengths. However, the efficiency for such substrates is low as compared to the preferred C18 chain length and defined by the substrate specificity of the first enzymatic step in sophorolipid biosynthesis, i.e., the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP52M1. To increase product uniformity and diversity at the same time, a new strain of S. bombicola was developed that produces sophorolipids with a palmitic acid acyl chain. This was achieved by heterologous expression of the cytochrome P450 cyp1 gene of Ustilago maydis and feeding with palmitic acid. Optimization of the production was done by protein and process engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: sophorolipid; biosurfactant; Starmerella bombicola; cytochrome P450; chimeragenesis; enzyme engineering; process engineering; fermentation; purification; NMR sophorolipid; biosurfactant; Starmerella bombicola; cytochrome P450; chimeragenesis; enzyme engineering; process engineering; fermentation; purification; NMR
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Geys, R.; De Graeve, M.; Lodens, S.; Van Malderen, J.; Lemmens, C.; De Smet, M.; Mincke, S.; Van Bogaert, I.N.A.; Stevens, C.; De Maeseneire, S.L.; Roelants, S.L.K.W.; Soetaert, W.K.G. Increasing Uniformity of Biosurfactant Production in Starmerella bombicola via the Expression of Chimeric Cytochrome P450s. Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2, 42.

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