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Volume 1, September

Sci, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2019) – 7 articles

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Article
An Experiment-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Impacts of Full Bandwidth Load on the Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electrified Vehicles
Sci 2019, 1(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010026 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a [...] Read more.
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles)
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Letter
Ground-based Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases in Beijing during the Olympic Games
Sci 2019, 1(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010023 - 15 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1575
Abstract
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then [...] Read more.
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then presented. The total columns of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are retrieved from the ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded by the B3M-IR during the Olympic Games. Lacking validation data, only the retrieved total column of O3 is compared with that retrieved by MAX-DOAS, which is deployed at the same station. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement is 6.5%, demonstrating the performance and reliability of B3M-IR. Full article
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Editorial
Evolution of Sci's Community-Driven Post-Publication Peer-Review
Sci 2019, 1(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010016.v1 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2039
Article
Quantum Calcium-Ion Interactions with EEG
Sci 2019, 1(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010020 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, has [...] Read more.
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, has been developed from classical PATHINT. Both fold short-time propagators (distributions or wave functions) over long times. Previous papers applied qPATHINT to two systems, in neocortical interactions and financial options. Objective: In this paper the quantum path-integral for Calcium ions is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Using fits of this SMNI model to EEG data, including these effects, will help determine if this is a reasonable approach. Method: Methods of mathematical-physics for optimization and for path integrals in classical and quantum spaces are used for this project. Studies using supercomputer resources tested various dimensions for their scaling limits. In this paper the quantum path-integral is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Results: The mathematical-physics and computer parts of the study are successful, in that there is modest improvement of cost/objective functions used to fit EEG data using these models. Conclusions: This project points to directions for more detailed calculations using more EEG data and qPATHINT at each time slice to propagate quantum calcium waves, synchronized with PATHINT propagation of classical SMNI. Full article
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Review
Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes
Sci 2019, 1(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010019 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization about one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomer-ization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocy-anine dyes, are considered. meso-Alkyl-substituted [...] Read more.
One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization about one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomer-ization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocy-anine dyes, are considered. meso-Alkyl-substituted thiacarbocyanine dyes are present in polar solvents mainly as cis isomers and, hence, exhibit no photoisomerization, whereas in nonpolar solvents, in which the dyes are in the trans form, photoisomerization takes place. In contrast, the meso-substituted dyes 3,3′-dimethyl-9-phenylthiacarbocyanine and 3,3′-diethyl-9-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)thiacarbocyanine occur as trans isomers and exhibit photoisomerization in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The behavior of these dyes may be ex-plained by the fact that the phenyl ring of the substituent in their molecules can be twisted at some angle, removing the substituent from the plane of the molecule and reducing its steric ef-fect on the conformation of the trans isomer. In some cases, photoisomerization of cis isomers of meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes is also observed (for some meso-alkyl-substituted dyes com-plexed with DNA and chondroitin-4-sulfate; for 3,3′-diethyl-9-methoxythiacarbocyanine in moderate polarity solvents). The cycle photoisomerization–thermal back isomerization of cya-nine dyes can be used in various systems of information storage and deserves further investiga-tion using modern research methods. Full article
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Article
Correlation between the Fluctuations in Worldwide Seismicity and Atmospheric Carbon Pollution
Sci 2019, 1(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010017 - 02 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving [...] Read more.
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving Fe and Ni as starting elements, and C, N, O as resultants. Geochemical data and experimental evidences support the LENR hypothesis. A spectral analysis of the period 1955-2013 shows common cycles between interannual changes in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and global seismic-moment release, whereas the trending behavior of the atmospheric CO2 was in response to the anthropogenic emissions. Assuming a correlation between such seismic and atmospheric fluctuations, the latter could be explained by cycles of worldwide seismicity, which would trigger massively LENR in the Earth’s Crust. In this framework, LENR from active faults could be considered as a relevant cause of carbon formation and degassing of freshly-formed CO2 during seismic activity. However, further studies are necessary to validate the present hypothesis which, at the present time, mainly aims to stimulate debate on the models which regulates atmospheric CO2. Full article
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Editorial
Sci—An Open Access Journal with Post-Publication Peer Review
Sci 2019, 1(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010001 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5046
Abstract
Sci (ISSN: 2413-4155) is a new and innovative open access journal from MDPI. [...] Full article
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