Table of Contents

Sci, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReviewPost Publication Peer Review Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Removal Methods from Wastewater in the United Kingdom: A Review
Sci 2019, 1(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci1010015.v1 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Viewed by 27 | PDF Full-text (486 KB)
Abstract
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants with estrogenic or androgenic activity that negatively impact human and animal communities. These compounds have become one of the significant concerns for wastewater treatment in recent decades. Several studies have evaluated EDC removal methods from wastewater across [...] Read more.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants with estrogenic or androgenic activity that negatively impact human and animal communities. These compounds have become one of the significant concerns for wastewater treatment in recent decades. Several studies have evaluated EDC removal methods from wastewater across the globe including the United Kingdom (UK). Accordingly, the current study reviews EDC removal methods from municipal/domestic wastewater in the United Kingdom (UK) for the period of 2010–2017. The research highlights that despite the relative efficacy of existing chemical and physical methods for removing certain EDCs from wastewater there is emerging evidence supporting the need for more widespread application of nature-based and biological approaches, particularly the use of biofilms. The analysis reveals that there have been relatively few research studies on EDC removal methods have been carried out in the UK in the 2010–2017 period and none of the research focused on EDC removal using biofilms. Finally, this review suggests that more research is needed to remove EDCs, particularly through the application of biofilms, from municipal wastewater in current scenarios. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Perspectives on Agricultural Land Use Conversion and Food Security in Rural Ghana
Received: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
Viewed by 59 | PDF Full-text (505 KB)
Abstract
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social [...] Read more.
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social to economic, in the Asante-Akim South district of the Asante region, Ghana. The paper examined the effects of agricultural land use trade-off on food production in the district. Using a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods, 115 household respondents were proportionately sampled from three selected communities in the district, for the collection of data through the administration of questionnaires. The data were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square, embedded in the SPSS V.16, to test for association among the variables. We report that the increasing rate of agricultural land uses conversions was as a result of increasing demand for residential and commercial land usage at the expense of agricultural land uses. Converting prime agricultural lands into other land uses was seen as profitable to agricultural expansion. A re-examination of the district land use plans by the Ghanaian Physical (Town and Country) Planning Department in tandem with the Lands Commission is therefore recommended. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Biological Activities of Organically Templated Cobalt Phosphite (C4N2H14)Co(H2PO3)4·2H2O
Received: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
Viewed by 96 | PDF Full-text (760 KB)
Abstract
A novel hybrid phosphite [(C4N2H14)Co(H2PO3)4·2H2O] was synthesized with 1,4- diaminobutane (dabn) as a structure-directing agent using slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that it crystallizes in [...] Read more.
A novel hybrid phosphite [(C4N2H14)Co(H2PO3)4·2H2O] was synthesized with 1,4- diaminobutane (dabn) as a structure-directing agent using slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that it crystallizes in the triclinic system (S.G: P-1, #2) with the following unit cell parameters (Å, °) a = 5.4814 (3), b = 7.5515 (4), c = 10.8548 (6), α = 88.001 (4), β = 88.707 (5), γ = 85.126 (5). The crystal structure was built up from corner-sharing [CoO6]-octahedrons, forming chains parallel to [001], which are interconnected by H2PO3 pseudo-pyramid units. The diprotonated 1,4-diaminobutane molecules, residing between the parallel chains, interacted with the inorganic moiety via hydrogen bonds leading thus to the formation of the 3D crystal structure. The Fourier transform infrared result exhibited characteristic bands corresponding to the phosphite group and the organic molecule. The thermal decomposition of the compound consists mainly of the loss of the organic moiety and the water molecules. The biological tests exhibited significant activity against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli strains in all used concentrations, while less activity was pronounced when tested against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while there was no activity against the nematode model Steinernema feltiae. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Perception to Adaptation of Climate Change in Nepal: An Empirical Analysis Using Multivariate Probit Model
Received: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Viewed by 377 | PDF Full-text (389 KB)
Abstract
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a [...] Read more.
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a vulnerability index. Four adaptation choices (change in planting date, crop variety, crop type and investment in irrigation) were deemed as outcome variables and socioeconomic, demographic, institutional, farm-level and perceptions variables were deployed as explanatory variables. Their marginal effects were determined for three climatic variables—temperature, precipitation and drought. Age, gender and education of head of household, credit access, farm area, rain-fed farming and tenure, are found to be more influential compared to other factors. All four adaptation-options are found to be complimentary to each other. Importantly, the intensity of impact of dependent variables in different models, and for available adaptation-options, are found to be unequal. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be devised according to climatic variables and adaptation options to achieve superior results. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Evaluation of Dissolution Enhancement of Aprepitant Drug in Ternary Pharmaceutical Solid Dispersions with Soluplus® and Poloxamer 188 Prepared by Melt Mixing
Received: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Viewed by 176 | PDF Full-text (2077 KB)
Abstract
In the present study Aprepitant (APT) ternary solid dispersions (SDs) were developed and evaluated for the first time. Specifically, ternary SDs of APT with Poloxamer 188 and Soluplus® (SOL) were prepared via melt mixing and compared to binary APT/Poloxamer 188 and APT/SOL [...] Read more.
In the present study Aprepitant (APT) ternary solid dispersions (SDs) were developed and evaluated for the first time. Specifically, ternary SDs of APT with Poloxamer 188 and Soluplus® (SOL) were prepared via melt mixing and compared to binary APT/Poloxamer 188 and APT/SOL SDs. Initially, combined thermo-gravimetric and hot-stage polarized light microscopy studies indicated that all tested compounds were thermally stable up to 280 °C, while Poloxamer 188 acted as a plasticizer to SOL by significantly reducing the temperature required to fully solubilize the API during SD preparation. Differential scanning calorimetry combined with wide angle X-ray diffraction studies showed that crystalline API was dispersed in both binary and ternary SDs, while Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no molecular interactions among the components. Scanning electron microscopy combined with EDAX element analysis showed that the API was dispersed in nano-scale within the polymer matrices, while increasing APT content led to increasing API nano-crystals within the SDs. Finally, dissolution studies showed that the prepared formulations enhanced dissolution of Aprepitant and its mechanism analysis was further studied. A mathematical model was also investigated to evaluate the drug release mechanism. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Imbibition, Germination, and Early Seedling Growth Responses of Light Purple and Yellow Seeds of Red Clover to Distilled Water, Sodium Chloride, and Nutrient Solution
Received: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Viewed by 205 | PDF Full-text (413 KB)
Abstract
The seeds of red clover are heteromorphic and two color morphs can be visually recognized, light purple and yellow, resulting from heterozygosity and recessive homozygosity at two loci. Here, we report the responses of seed imbibition, seed germination, and early seedling growth of [...] Read more.
The seeds of red clover are heteromorphic and two color morphs can be visually recognized, light purple and yellow, resulting from heterozygosity and recessive homozygosity at two loci. Here, we report the responses of seed imbibition, seed germination, and early seedling growth of the two morphs to distilled water, sodium chloride, and complete nutrient solution. The sensitivity of red clover seeds to treatments increased with the stage of development in what seems to be a cumulative process. No differences were found in seed imbibition between morphs or between treatments. In seedling growth, on the contrary, treatments were always effective, but differences between morphs were only observed in seeds that were treated with nutrient solution, whereas in the intermediate stage of seed germination, the effects by treatments were observed together with the appearance of differences between morphs in distilled water and in the treatment by sodium chloride solution. Simultaneously, the superior performance of the yellow morph that was found in germination, which appears to be a trait stable across cultivars of red clover seeds, turned into a superior performance of the light purple morph in seedling growth. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Assessment of Habitat Change Processes within theOti-Keran-Mandouri Network of Protected Areas in Togo (West Africa) from 1987 to 2013 Using Decision Tree Analysis
Received: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 237 | PDF Full-text (1096 KB)
Abstract
Biodiversity conservation planning is highly important in the current context of global change. Biodiversity conservation can be achieved by understanding changes in land use at the landscape scale. Such understanding is needed to reverse the unprecedented pressure on natural resources that has been [...] Read more.
Biodiversity conservation planning is highly important in the current context of global change. Biodiversity conservation can be achieved by understanding changes in land use at the landscape scale. Such understanding is needed to reverse the unprecedented pressure on natural resources that has been reported by many studies conducted on biodiversity conservation within the Oti-Keran-Mandouri protected areas. Land cover maps reflecting different dates (1987, 2000, and 2013) and depicting different management systems, with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 79%, were analyzed to understand the processes that lead to habitat degradation within these protected areas. The nature of change, within a given land cover class, was determined by comparing land cover maps on different dates using a decision tree algorithm that compares the number of patches, their areas, and their perimeters at different time periods (T1 and T2). Specifically, two time-periods were considered for this analysis: 1987–2000 and 2000–2013. Croplands and settlements increased at an average of 108.13% and 5.45%, respectively, from 1987 to 2000. From 2000 to 2013, croplands gained from all other land categories and continued to increase at a rate of 11.77% per year, whereas forests and savannas decreased at an annual average rate by 5.79% and 2.32%, respectively. The dominant processes of habitat change from 1987 to 2000 were the creation of forests, dissection of savannas, attrition of wetlands, and creation of croplands. Meanwhile, from 2000 to 2013, there was attrition of forests, as well as attrition of savannas, dissection of wetlands, and aggregation of croplands. In general, from 1987 to 2013, natural habitats regressed and were replaced by croplands; forests, savannas, and wetlands decreased at an average annual percentage 5.74%, 3.94%, and 2.02%, respectively, whereas croplands increased at an average annual rate of 285.39% of their own area. Aggregation, attrition, dissection, and creation were the main habitat change processes identified for the overall period from 1987 to 2013. There was habitat loss in forests and savannas and habitat fragmentation in wetland due to attrition and dissection, respectively. Identifying and understanding habitat change processes would enable the taking of appropriate biodiversity conservation actions. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Origin of the 16S Ribosomal Molecule from Ancestor tRNAs
Received: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Viewed by 191 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB)
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that concatemers of ancestral tRNAs gave rise to the 16S ribosomal RNA. We built an ancestral sequence of proto-tRNAs that showed a significant identity of 51.69% and a percentage of structural identity of 0.941 with the 16S ribosomal molecule. [...] Read more.
We tested the hypothesis that concatemers of ancestral tRNAs gave rise to the 16S ribosomal RNA. We built an ancestral sequence of proto-tRNAs that showed a significant identity of 51.69% and a percentage of structural identity of 0.941 with the 16S ribosomal molecule. We also propose a hypothesis for the emergence of translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules to Microbes)
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Correlation between the Fluctuations in Worldwide Seismicity and Atmospheric Carbon Pollution
Received: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving [...] Read more.
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving Fe and Ni as starting elements, and C, N, O as resultants. Geochemical data and experimental evidences support the LENR hypothesis. A spectral analysis of the period 1955-2013 shows common cycles between interannual changes in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and global seismic-moment release, whereas the trending behavior of the atmospheric CO2 was in response to the anthropogenic emissions. Assuming a correlation between such seismic and atmospheric fluctuations, the latter could be explained by cycles of worldwide seismicity, which would trigger massively LENR in the Earth’s Crust. In this framework, LENR from active faults could be considered as a relevant cause of carbon formation and degassing of freshly-formed CO2 during seismic activity. However, further studies are necessary to validate the present hypothesis which, at the present time, mainly aims to stimulate debate on the models which regulates atmospheric CO2. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Quantum Calcium-Ion Interactions with EEG
Received: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
Viewed by 493 | PDF Full-text (443 KB)
Abstract
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, [...] Read more.
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, has been developed from classical PATHINT. Both fold short-time propagators (distributions or wave functions) over long times. Previous papers applied qPATHINT to two systems, in neocortical interactions and financial options. Objective: In this paper the quantum path-integral for Calcium ions is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Using fits of this SMNI model to EEG data, including these effects, will help determine if this is a reasonable approach. Method: Methods of mathematical-physics for optimization and for path integrals in classical and quantum spaces are used for this project. Studies using supercomputer resources tested various dimensions for their scaling limits. In this paper the quantum path-integral is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Results: The mathematical-physics and computer parts of the study are successful, in that there is modest improvement of cost/objective functions used to fit EEG data using these models. Conclusions: This project points to directions for more detailed calculations using more EEG data and qPATHINT at each time slice to propagate quantum calcium waves, synchronized with PATHINT propagation of classical SMNI. Full article
Open AccessLetterPost Publication Peer Review Ground-based Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases in Beijing during the Olympic Games
Received: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Viewed by 489 | PDF Full-text (1027 KB)
Abstract
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then [...] Read more.
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then presented. The total columns of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are retrieved from the ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded by the B3M-IR during the Olympic Games. Lacking validation data, only the retrieved total column of O3 is compared with that retrieved by MAX-DOAS, which is deployed at the same station. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement is 6.5%, demonstrating the performance and reliability of B3M-IR. Full article
Open AccessCommunicationPost Publication Peer Review Synthesis of A Silver Nanowire Array on Cu-BTC MOF Micropillars
Received: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Viewed by 395 | PDF Full-text (565 KB)
Abstract
An array of Ag nanowires has been prepared from a facile, templated approach on Cu(BTC) (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) metal organic framework (MOF) micropillars. The Ag-deposited scaffolding material may be used to prepare electronic or optoelectronic devices for various applications. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReviewPost Publication Peer Review Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes
Received: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
Viewed by 387 | PDF Full-text (688 KB)
Abstract
One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization around one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomerization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes, are considered. [...] Read more.
One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization around one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomerization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes, are considered. meso-Alkyl-substituted thiacarbocyanine dyes are present in polar solvents mainly as cis isomers and, hence, exhibit no photoisomerization, whereas in nonpolar solvents, in which the dyes are in the trans form, photoisomerization takes place. In contrast, the meso-substituted dyes 3,3′-dimethyl-9-phenylthiacarbocyanine and 3,3′-diethyl-9-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)thiacarbocyanine occur as trans isomers and exhibit photoisomerization in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The behavior of these dyes may be explained by the fact that the phenyl ring of the substituent in their molecules can be twisted at some angle, removing the substituent from the plane of the molecule and reducing its steric effect on the conformation of the trans isomer. In some cases, photoisomerization of cis isomers of meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes is also observed (for some meso-alkyl-substituted dyes complexed with DNA and chondroitin-4-sulfate; for 3,3′-diethyl-9-methoxythiacarbocyanine in moderate polarity solvents). The cycle photoisomerization–thermal back isomerization of cyanine dyes can be used in various systems of information storage and deserves further investigation using modern research methods. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review An Experiment-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Impacts of Full Bandwidth Load on the Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electrified Vehicles
Received: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
Viewed by 565 | PDF Full-text (1498 KB)
Abstract
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a [...] Read more.
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles)
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Correlation between the Fluctuations in Worldwide Seismicity and Atmospheric Carbon Pollution
Received: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
Viewed by 1317 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving [...] Read more.
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving Fe and Ni as starting elements, and C, N, O as resultants. Geochemical data and experimental evidences support the LENR hypothesis. A spectral analysis of the period 1955-2013 shows common cycles between interannual changes in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and global seismic-moment release, whereas the trending behavior of the atmospheric CO2 was in response to the anthropogenic emissions. Assuming a correlation between such seismic and atmospheric fluctuations, the latter could be explained by cycles of worldwide seismicity, which would trigger massively LENR in the Earth’s Crust. In this framework, LENR from active faults could be considered as a relevant cause of carbon formation and degassing of freshly-formed CO2 during seismic activity. However, further studies are necessary to validate the present hypothesis which, at the present time, mainly aims to stimulate debate on the models which regulates atmospheric CO2. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorialPost Publication Peer Review Sci—An Open Access Journal with Post-Publication Peer Review
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
Viewed by 3210 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sci (ISSN: 2413-4155) is a new and innovative open access journal from MDPI. [...] Full article
Sci EISSN 2413-4155 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top