Table of Contents

Sci, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessLetterPost Publication Peer Review Ground-based Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases in Beijing during the Olympic Games
Received: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then
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A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then presented. The total columns of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are retrieved from the ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded by the B3M-IR during the Olympic Games. Lacking validation data, only the retrieved total column of O3 is compared with that retrieved by MAX-DOAS, which is deployed at the same station. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement is 6.5%, demonstrating the performance and reliability of B3M-IR. Full article
Open AccessCommunicationPost Publication Peer Review Synthesis of A Silver Nanowire Array on Cu-BTC MOF Micropillars
Received: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
An array of Ag nanowires has been prepared from a facile, templated approach on Cu(BTC) (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) metal organic framework (MOF) micropillars. The Ag-deposited scaffolding material may be used to prepare electronic or optoelectronic devices for various applications. Full article
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Open AccessReviewPost Publication Peer Review Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes
Received: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization around one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomerization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes, are considered.
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One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization around one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomerization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes, are considered. meso-Alkyl-substituted thiacarbocyanine dyes are present in polar solvents mainly as cis isomers and, hence, exhibit no photoisomerization, whereas in nonpolar solvents, in which the dyes are in the trans form, photoisomerization takes place. In contrast, the meso-substituted dyes 3,3′-dimethyl-9-phenylthiacarbocyanine and 3,3′-diethyl-9-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)thiacarbocyanine occur as trans isomers and exhibit photoisomerization in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The behavior of these dyes may be explained by the fact that the phenyl ring of the substituent in their molecules can be twisted at some angle, removing the substituent from the plane of the molecule and reducing its steric effect on the conformation of the trans isomer. In some cases, photoisomerization of cis isomers of meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes is also observed (for some meso-alkyl-substituted dyes complexed with DNA and chondroitin-4-sulfate; for 3,3′-diethyl-9-methoxythiacarbocyanine in moderate polarity solvents). The cycle photoisomerization–thermal back isomerization of cyanine dyes can be used in various systems of information storage and deserves further investigation using modern research methods. Full article
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review An Experiment-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Impacts of Full Bandwidth Load on the Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electrified Vehicles
Received: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a
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In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles)
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer Review Correlation between the Fluctuations in Worldwide Seismicity and in Atmospheric Carbon Pollution
Received: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving
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The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving Fe and Ni as starting elements, and C, N, O as resultants. Geochemical data and experimental evidences support the LENR hypothesis. The time series analysis highlighted significant correlation between the atmospheric CO2 growth rate and the global seismic-moment release rate, whereas the trending behavior was in response to the anthropogenic emissions. The fluctuations in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate time series were inexplicable in terms of anthropogenic emissions, but could be explained by the cycles of worldwide seismicity, which massively trigger LENR in the Earth’s crust. In this framework, LENR from active faults must be considered as a relevant cause of carbon formation and degassing of freshly-formed CO2 during seismic activity. Full article
Open AccessEditorialPost Publication Peer Review Sci—An Open Access Journal with Post-Publication Peer Review
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
Sci (ISSN: 2413-4155) is a new and innovative open access journal from MDPI. [...] Full article
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