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Open AccessArticle

Effect of High-Temperature Annealing on Graphene with Nickel Contacts

1
Department of Optoelectronics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
Department of Physical Technologies, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
3
Department of Organic Chemistry, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Condens. Matter 2019, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat4010021
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Graphene has shown great potential for ultra-high frequency electronics. However, using graphene in electronic devices creates a requirement for electrodes with low contact resistance. Thermal annealing is sometimes used to improve the performance of contact electrodes. However, high-temperature annealing may introduce additional doping or defects to graphene. Moreover, an extensive increase in temperature may damage electrodes by destroying the metal–graphene contact. In this work, we studied the effect of high-temperature annealing on graphene and nickel–graphene contacts. Annealing was done in the temperature range of 200–800 °C and the effect of the annealing temperature was observed by two and four-point probe resistance measurements and by Raman spectroscopy. We observed that the annealing of a graphene sample above 300 °C increased the level of doping, but did not always improve electrical contacts. Above 600 °C, the nickel–graphene contact started to degrade, while graphene survived even higher process temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; annealing; doping; electric contacts graphene; annealing; doping; electric contacts
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Kaplas, T.; Jakstas, V.; Biciunas, A.; Luksa, A.; Setkus, A.; Niaura, G.; Kasalynas, I. Effect of High-Temperature Annealing on Graphene with Nickel Contacts. Condens. Matter 2019, 4, 21.

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