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Condens. Matter 2019, 4(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat4010023

Temperature Effects on the HOPG Intercalation Process

1
Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, p.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Materials Science, Università Milano-Bicocca, v. R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano, Italy
3
Department of Physics, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, v. della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract

Graphite intercalation via chemical strategies is a common procedure to delaminate stratified crystals and obtain a suspension of graphene flakes. The intercalation mechanism at the molecular level is still under investigation in view of enhancing graphene production and reducing damage to the original pristine crystal. The latter, in particular, can undergo surface detriment due to both blister evolution and carbon dissolution. The role of the electrolyte temperature in this process has never been investigated. Here, by using an in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) apparatus, we explore surface morphology changes after the application of fast cyclic-voltammetries at 343 K, in view of de-coupling the crystal swelling phenomenon from the other electrochemical processes. We find that blisters do not evolve as a consequence of the increasing temperature, while the quality of the graphite surface becomes significantly worse, due to the formation of some adsorbates on possible defect sites of the electrode surface. Our results suggest that the chemical baths used in graphite delamination must be carefully monitored in temperature for avoiding undesired electrode detriment. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature dependence; HOPG; anion intercalation; blister; in-situ AFM temperature dependence; HOPG; anion intercalation; blister; in-situ AFM
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Bussetti, G.; Yivlialin, R.; Goletti, C.; Zani, M.; Duò, L. Temperature Effects on the HOPG Intercalation Process. Condens. Matter 2019, 4, 23.

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