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Prevalence and Risk of Anisakid Larvae in Fresh Fish Frequently Consumed in Spain: An Overview

1
Parasites and Health Research Group, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, University of València, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
2
Laboratorio de Investigaciones Parasitológicas “Jesús Moreno Rangel”, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioanálisis, Universidad de Los Andes, 5101 Mérida, Venezuela
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fishes 2019, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010013
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish-borne parasites in the era of One Health)
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Abstract

Anisakidosis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by parasitic nematodes of the family Anisakidae, of which the species belonging to Anisakis simplex complex are the most representative. It is considered an emerging disease in Spain. The objective of this study is to analyse the presence of larvae in fish frequently consumed in Spanish supermarkets, inferring the risk of infection. In total 1,786 specimens of 9 different fish species, from two geographical origins (Atlantic and Mediterranean), acquired fresh and not eviscerated were examined for anisakid nematodes. Analysis showed that 33.7% of the samples were parasitized by Anisakis larvae. The horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) presented the highest total prevalence (66.0%), followed by the silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) (59.5%), the mackerel (Scomber scombrus) (58.4%), the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) (53.9%) and the European hake (Merlucius merlucius) (45.0%). In general, the prevalence was higher in Atlantic than in Mediterranean fish. In all the species analysed, a higher presence of the parasite was detected in the viscera than in the flesh, although in the most parasitized species a noteworthy prevalence and abundance was observed in the flesh. In conclusion, risk factors, like fish species and origin, should be considered by consumers, in addition of following the recommendations established by Commission Regulation (EU) No1276/2011 and the Spanish Royal Decree 1420/2006. View Full-Text
Keywords: human anisakidosis risk; Anisakis; blue whiting; hake; red mullet; mackerel; horse mackerel; chub mackerel; sardine; anchovy human anisakidosis risk; Anisakis; blue whiting; hake; red mullet; mackerel; horse mackerel; chub mackerel; sardine; anchovy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Debenedetti, Á.L.; Madrid, E.; Trelis, M.; Codes, F.J.; Gil-Gómez, F.; Sáez-Durán, S.; Fuentes, M.V. Prevalence and Risk of Anisakid Larvae in Fresh Fish Frequently Consumed in Spain: An Overview. Fishes 2019, 4, 13.

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