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Cryptography, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 4 articles

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Open AccessArticle
ESPADE: An Efficient and Semantically Secure Shortest Path Discovery for Outsourced Location-Based Services
Cryptography 2020, 4(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040029 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 197
Abstract
With the rapid growth of smart devices and technological advancements in tracking geospatial data, the demand for Location-Based Services (LBS) is facing a constant rise in several domains, including military, healthcare and transportation. It is a natural step to migrate LBS to a [...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of smart devices and technological advancements in tracking geospatial data, the demand for Location-Based Services (LBS) is facing a constant rise in several domains, including military, healthcare and transportation. It is a natural step to migrate LBS to a cloud environment to achieve on-demand scalability and increased resiliency. Nonetheless, outsourcing sensitive location data to a third-party cloud provider raises a host of privacy concerns as the data owners have reduced visibility and control over the outsourced data. In this paper, we consider outsourced LBS where users want to retrieve map directions without disclosing their location information. Specifically, our paper aims to address the following problem: Given a user’s location s, a target destination t, and a graph G stored in a cloud, can users retrieve the shortest path route from s to t in a privacy-preserving manner? Although there exist a few solutions to this problem, they are either inefficient or insecure. For example, existing solutions either leak intermediate results to untrusted cloud providers or incur significant costs on the end-user. To address this gap, we propose an efficient and secure solution based on homomorphic encryption properties combined with a novel data aggregation technique. We formally show that our solution achieves semantic security guarantees under the semi-honest model. Additionally, we provide complexity analysis and experimental results to demonstrate that the proposed protocol is significantly more efficient than the current state-of-the-art techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Privacy-Preserving and Efficient Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search Based on CP-ABE in Cloud
Cryptography 2020, 4(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040028 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
In the area of searchable encryption, public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) has been a critically important and promising technique which provides secure search over encrypted data in cloud computing. PEKS can protect user data privacy without affecting the usage of the [...] Read more.
In the area of searchable encryption, public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) has been a critically important and promising technique which provides secure search over encrypted data in cloud computing. PEKS can protect user data privacy without affecting the usage of the data stored in the untrusted cloud server environment. However, most of the existing PEKS schemes concentrate on data users’ rich search functionalities, regardless of their search permission. Attribute-based encryption technology is a good method to solve the security issues, which provides fine-grained access control to the encrypted data. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving and efficient public key encryption with keyword search scheme by using the ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) technique to support both fine-grained access control and keyword search over encrypted data simultaneously. We formalize the security definition, and prove that our scheme achieves selective indistinguishability security against an adaptive chosen keyword attack. Finally, we present the performance analysis in terms of theoretical analysis and experimental analysis, and demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Side-Channel Evaluation Methodology on Software
Cryptography 2020, 4(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040027 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Cryptographic implementations need to be robust amidst the widespread use of crypto-libraries and attacks targeting their implementation, such as side-channel attacks (SCA). Many certification schemes, such as Common Criteria and FIPS 140, continue without addressing side-channel flaws. Research works mostly tackle sophisticated attacks [...] Read more.
Cryptographic implementations need to be robust amidst the widespread use of crypto-libraries and attacks targeting their implementation, such as side-channel attacks (SCA). Many certification schemes, such as Common Criteria and FIPS 140, continue without addressing side-channel flaws. Research works mostly tackle sophisticated attacks with simple use-cases, which is not the reality where end-to-end evaluation is not trivial. In this study we used all due diligence to assess the invulnerability of a given implementation from the shoes of an evaluator. In this work we underline that there are two kinds of SCA: horizontal and vertical. In terms of quotation, measurement and exploitation, horizontal SCA is easier. If traces are constant-time, then vertical attacks become convenient, since there is no need for specific alignment (“value based analysis”). We introduce our new methodology: Vary the key to select sensitive samples, where the values depend upon the key, and subsequently vary the mask to uncover unmasked key-dependent leakage, i.e., the flaws. This can be done in the source code (pre-silicon) for the designer or on the actual traces (post-silicon) for the test-lab. We also propose a methodology for quotations regarding SCA unlike standards that focus on only one aspect (like number of traces) and forgets about other aspects (such as equipment; cf. ISO/IEC 20085-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Side Channel and Fault Injection Attacks and Countermeasures)
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Open AccessArticle
Secure Boot for Reconfigurable Architectures
Cryptography 2020, 4(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040026 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Reconfigurable computing is becoming ubiquitous in the form of consumer-based Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Reconfigurable computing architectures have found their place in safety-critical infrastructures such as the automotive industry. As the target architecture evolves, it also needs to be updated remotely on [...] Read more.
Reconfigurable computing is becoming ubiquitous in the form of consumer-based Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Reconfigurable computing architectures have found their place in safety-critical infrastructures such as the automotive industry. As the target architecture evolves, it also needs to be updated remotely on the target platform. This process is susceptible to remote hijacking, where the attacker can maliciously update the reconfigurable hardware target with tainted hardware configuration. This paper proposes an architecture of establishing Root of Trust at the hardware level using cryptographic co-processors and Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) and enable over the air updates. The proposed framework implements a secure boot protocol on Xilinx based FPGAs. The project demonstrates the configuration of the bitstream, boot process integration with TPM and secure over-the-air updates for the hardware reconfiguration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hardware Security)
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