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A Taxonomy of Blockchain Consensus Methods

Service and Cloud Computing Research Lab, Auckland University of Technology; Auckland 1010, New Zealand
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Cryptography 2020, 4(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040032
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
For a blockchain, consensus is the foundation protocol that enables cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin to maintain state. Additionally, to ensure safety and liveness for a publicly accessible and verifiable ledger, fault tolerance must be robust. However, there appears to be a degree of misunderstanding about how consensus is applied across blockchains. To assist researchers considering variations between them, this study presents a rational classification of consensus methods applied to current blockchains. The study provides a survey of 19 methods classified by the scarce resource they employ: clock-cycles, bits, tokens, votes, time, and biometrics. Blockchain implementations are split between consensus algorithms requiring proof of resource and those that use majority voting to update the ledger. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; consensus; cryptocurrency; taxonomy; Bitcoin; Ethereum; decentralised computing blockchain; consensus; cryptocurrency; taxonomy; Bitcoin; Ethereum; decentralised computing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nijsse, J.; Litchfield, A. A Taxonomy of Blockchain Consensus Methods. Cryptography 2020, 4, 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040032

AMA Style

Nijsse J, Litchfield A. A Taxonomy of Blockchain Consensus Methods. Cryptography. 2020; 4(4):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nijsse, Jeff, and Alan Litchfield. 2020. "A Taxonomy of Blockchain Consensus Methods" Cryptography 4, no. 4: 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4040032

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