Uremic toxins play a pathological role in atherosclerosis and represent an important risk factor in dialysis patients. Online hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been introduced to improve the clearance of middle- and large-molecular-weight solutes (>500 Da) and has been associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to standard hemodialysis. This non-randomized, open-label observational study will explore the efficacy of two dialyzers currently used for online HDF, a polysulfone-based high-flux membrane, and a cellulose triacetate membrane, in hemodialysis patients with signs of middle-molecule intoxication or intradialytic hypotension. In particular, the two filters will be evaluated for their ability in uremic toxin removal and modulation of inflammatory status. Sixteen subjects in standard chronic bicarbonate hemodialysis requiring a switch to online HDF in view of their clinical status will be enrolled and divided into two treatment arms, according to the previous history of hypersensitivity to polysulfone/polyethersulfone dialysis filters and hypersensitivity to drugs or other allergens. Group A will consist of 16 patients without a previous history of hypersensitivity and will be treated with a polysulfone filter (Helixone FX100), and group B, also consisting of 16 patients, with a previous history of hypersensitivity and will be treated with asymmetric triacetate (ATA; SOLACEA 21-H) dialyzer. Each patient will be followed for a period of 24 months, with monthly assessments of circulating middle-weight toxins and protein-bound toxins, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, lymphocyte subsets, activated lymphocytes, and monocytes, cell apoptosis, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), variations in arterial stiffens measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and mortality rate. The in vitro effect on endothelial cells of uremic serum collected from patients treated with the two different dialyzers will also be investigated to examine the changes in angiogenesis, cell migration, differentiation, apoptosis and proliferative potential, and gene and protein expression profile. The expected results will be a better awareness of the different effects of polysulfone gold-standard membrane for online HDF and the new ATA membrane on the removal of uremic toxins removal and inflammation due to blood–membrane interaction.