A Critical Yoga Studies Approach to Grappling with Race: Introducing “Racial Tourism,” “Racial Mobilities,” and “Justice Storytelling” in the Context of Racial Fraud in the Academy
1. Introduction: Where, in Race, Is Home?
- Where, in race, is home?
- From where does racial tourism originate?
- Where is its destination?
- According to what logic is this destination determined and reached?
- Where does the activity of racial tourism and racial fraud in academia live on the ever-evolving map of race? Sub-questions on academia:
- Where do “diversity” performativity hires in academia lead the racial project?
- Where can we apply pressure points to push back on racism in the academy, and the enabling of race in the academy?
- Where does the responsibility of Duke Press lie for Krug and Smith, for example?
- Where does the racial tourism in academia phenomenon and the response to it live on the carceral spectrum?
- Where is it working in service to the carceral?
- What carceral purpose does this phenomenon and its response serve?
- Where can our responses benefit from more emancipation, liberation, and healing?
- What do we do with the mounting evidence that race in the academy includes a putrid, rotting, haunting limb and presentation?
- Where does race intersect with enabling in the academy?
- For example: the academy buoys race when it enables a Black/White binary through performative “diversity” hires of Black scholars—hires not met with equal effort to retain these scholars through safe racial experiences, quite the opposite in most cases.
- As another example, race is uplifted and reinforced in the academy through prizes, payments, positions, fellowships, a glittering shower of life chances based on race. What impact does this have on racial tourism in the academy?
- Given the focus of this paper on the white appropriation of race in academia: Where does #stopasianhate efforts intersect with white dominated Sinology and Indology departments? Where do we begin to chip away at healing from the specific racialized and racist nature of epistemic violence of settler colonial and neoliberal institutions of learning?
- Where do we apply the frameworks of critical race theory now?
- Where are Black Lives Matter movements absorbed into the accumulation of power and value for whiteness and settler colonialism?
- Where do we go from the point at which we have space to notice how resistance movements to racial injustice are usurped and used to affirm, for example, police power over Black lives?
- Where do we focus when we focus on racial justice?
- Where do racial justice strategies involving “brown,” “red,” and “yellow” people fit into a widely recognized, dominant black/white racial binary characterizing racial debates and definitions in the U.S.?
- Where do I live in relation to the law? Where do definitions of the law exist within me?
- Where do we process the experience of being racialized?
- Where would we be without race?
- Where can we create space to ask, what would a world without race look like (in an anti-“colorblind” way)?
- The George Floyd Justice and Policing Act of 2020: Where do we apply the frameworks of critical race theory now?
2. Literature Review: An Introduction of Terms
2.1. “Racial Mobilities:” “Mobilities,” and the Emerging “Settler Mobilities” and “Critical Mobilities” Research Agenda
2.2. “Racial Tourism:” Engaging “Critical Tourism Studies” and the Digital
3. Method: “Justice Storytelling” in Relation to “Legal Storytelling,” Critical Race Theory, and “Storytelling for Social Justice”
3.1. Justice Storytelling Requires Positionality
3.2. Author Positionality: Who Am I in This Language Making? Who Am I in This Story?
- I am self consciously knocking down doors between a public discourse conversation and an ivory tower debate through this article and the story herein.
- I identify as trans, femme, non-binary, and queer. As a mobilities scholar, I recognize trans as a state of movement, of existing across, and through. I appreciate the ability of “trans” to emancipate from non-binary confines into realms of movement, stillness, layers, and spectra.
- I identify as a brown and red person, who has also been included in the category of Black in relatively recent histories of race. As a Indian person, and indigenous woman, I have a personal and professional stake in the conversations urged forward here.
- I am the founder of Critical Yoga Studies, and chipping away at its building blocks, and in service of this, I initially used “racial tourism” as a key descriptor in my extensive, year long ethnography project on yoga tourism in Kerala, South India.
3.3. Justice Storytelling in Relation to Legal Storytelling and Critical Race Theory
3.4. “Justice Storytelling” in Relation to “Storytelling for Social Justice”
4. The Story: God Is Change: What Octavia Butler and Buddha Both Knew about Universal Law
4.1. Introducing Justice Storytelling in Action
4.2. Story Synopsis: By Calendar Dates
- Time Limits: Grievance Procedures for Graduate Students (From Oregon State University’s Grievance Procedures for Graduate Students https://gradschool.oregonstate.edu/current/grievance-procedures (accessed on 13 November 2020))
- Time Limitless: Grief Procedures for Graduate StudentsLog: 1 January 2020Important Institutional Storytelling Rules to Abide ByStory RulesRules of StoriesThe Story of RulesRuling Class Story RulesRules of Story EngagementThe Ruling Story of Story RulesRules of Narrative MethodologyLog: 14 February 2020Doctoral Cohort Recruitment Tour, 9:30amIndigenous Student Recruit speaks with a High Level Graduate Administrative Officer.Student asks about interdisciplinary narrative methodology and storytelling courses.Officer to Student:Beat? Generally, drumcourses take place bothFall and Spring inBuilding B, Room 3Very Diverse, Notably.Hear? The beat? No, OurStory Programis Written, no beat to be Heardexactly, though there are Devices,Punctuations, Pentameters,Disciplines for such Things.Do you mean Heartbeat? Yes? No? A beat, Here?No Here we Read and WriteStories.Song?As Stated in the Course Catalog,Music Happens in Building BPoetry? Is Offered every Other Year, Fall, English Department.Stories? Defined by a Beginning, Middle, End, Conflict, Dialogue, Mise-en-Scene—these are Well Accepted Hallmarks of the Method.I Suggest English. Yes, the English Department is Your Best Path to Stories. Building A.A Historic Landmark Building. Beautiful. It Used to Be an Ammunitions Storage Unit.In Which War?All of Them.Log: 14 February 2020Doctoral Cohort Recruitment Dinner, 6:30pmIndigenous Student Recruit sits next to White Tenured Professor.They discuss her Indigenous Legal Theory research statement at length.Research statement is already near publication ready.Clearly, Student has the foundation for an innovative dissertation.Professor asks avid questions, volunteers to be Student’s advisor.Student notices Professor’s gaze is off, is searching, hungry.Student knows a thing or two about a predatory gaze.Student remains hopeful. An advisor already!Log: 14 February 2020Twitter Account Created Anonymously by White Tenured Professor, 10:00pmHandle: @critindiginouslawFollowers: 0Post #1, 10:10pm, “Not every legal system is legitimate, ask me how I know #settlercolonialism”Log: 20 September 2021Email from Student to Professor, 9:00amSubject: Checking InGreetings, I hope you had an easeful summer. I have been diligently working on research and writing. I wonder if you had a chance to review my article draft manuscript that I shared in May? It is nearly ready for submission, as I said, your edits would be appreciated. As my advisor, you are most familiar with my work. But, in case it is helpful, in this draft I have included a new segment that uses a hybrid comparative law, literary analysis model to place two Univeral Law models—one Black, one Brown, and both immensely popular—in conversation with one another. I will give you a synopsis here:God is Change: What Octavia Butler and Buddha Both Knew About Universal Law.(It may be that this segment needs to be its own article, I would appreciate your opinion on this.)In The Dhammapada (approximately 500 bce), Siddhartha Gautama known as the Buddha issues a code for universal law, and in The Parable of the Sower (1993), Octavia Butler’s protagonist, Lauren Oya Olamina authors and embodies a strikingly similar code. Both texts center a clear message, “God is Change.” For example, “All is change in the world, but the disciples of Buddha are never shaken.” (The Dhammapada, Chapter 18, Impurity) resonates strongly with “The only lasting truth is Change. God is change.” (Parable of the Sower, Chapter 1). The Buddha espouses, “By oneself is evil done; by oneself one is injured. Do not do evil, and suffering will not come. Everyone has the choice to be pure or impure. No one can purify another.” (Chapter 12). Through Olamina, Butler codes, “To get along with God, consider the consequences of your own behaviour. People tend to give in to fear and depression, to need and greed—until they are exhausted and destroyed. Any Change may bear seeds of benefit. Seek them out. Any Change may bear seeds of harm. Beware.” (Chapters 8, 10, 11). When we place these liberatory texts together in conversation, there is much to be learned about Black and brown connection, familial and legal, moral and timeless.My work provides new insights on theoretical debates about how traditionally siloed legal and cultural meanings inform, overlap, and encompass one another. The engine of my investigations is the rapidly advancing power of cultural movements to contend with racism in the wake of widespread, waning belief in the ability of conventional U.S. law to address racial injustice, among other social justice concerns. More people are seeking Universal Law, which the Buddha describes as Dharma, the underlying unity of all life, the order of an indivisible whole, the moral order in human life, so it also means “law” as in a central law of creation (The Dhammapada). According to Universal Law, what it means to be law abiding is to be unconditioned, unfettered, to be without fear, one who can disassemble the conditioned personality. To Butler, the law abider of Earthseed code would be adaptive, free to change, similarly unchained.I am very excited to share that there is already publication interest in the idea, and I look forward to your reply about next steps for this exciting development. I think this will be a really impactful addition to the study of law, storytelling, liberation and racial justice.Best,StudentLog: 20 September 2021Twitter Account: @critindiginouslawFollowers: 13,000Posts #800: 10am“Everyone wants to talk about abolition, let’s talk about Universal Law—a thread.”“What is our post-abolition alternative? #universallaw”“What do you get when you mix Buddha and Octavia Butler? GOD IS CHANGE. #universallaw”Log: 21 September 2021Email from Professor to Student, 10:00pmRe: Checking InDear Student,Thank you for reaching out to me, and for sharing your exciting news. Why don’t you come to my office hours tomorrow, so we can discuss further. I don’t want you getting too in over your head.Log: 22 September 2021Office Hours Meeting, Professor and Student, 1pm–2pmStudent explains in greater detail aspects of this bold new legal scholarship she has created using the Buddha and Octavia Butler.Professor to SelfWhat’s thatWhat didShesayhmmmman idea so fineShe so roughcannot possibly knowits nature, impact, potentialfor developmentI will adopt itmake it viablescientificallydomesticate it withinthe correct disciplinesso it can growfor all of our benefitfor all of humanityI will take it from hereI am the bestversion of her andShe?Cannot begin to pay me back.Professor to StudentThe idea has merits(soothe her)but you cannot say thatwithout saying thisyou have to say all these firstbefore you get to say that(displace her)do you know these textshave you read at all(shine a kaleidoscope of shame into her eyes)what exactly have you read?(blindfold her, spin)I strongly recommend you waitthis is not ready to be developedit will be a distraction for you(I will take this from here. It is called stewardship. She is called a Ward.)Student to Selfmy memorydoesn’t worklike thatevery booka cell that splitsand grows into my marrowevery idea becomes bloodi shed and make wayfor more walls of wonderto build thickand then fall down againevery cyclei am not my memoryi am not a host of listsi am too close to theorizingto call itby its nameso i call itby my ownProfessor to SelfShecomes in hereHerthick, roundThatcarriageSheis a salmon runupstream, an as yetundead rivera leapand my netit is thrashingwith a meal.Student to Selfsomething splintered aboutthis rainbow she handed meam i but a screento projectonto me?The Professor concludes by asking Student to take a step back, do much more reading, and shelve the Buddha/Butler project until she has cleared at least one additional year and comprehensive exams.Log: 10 January 2022Letter of Acceptance from Big University PressDear Professor,We are thrilled to advance to the next stage of publication of your new book, God is Change: What Octavia Butler and Buddha Both Knew About Universal Law. No doubt, this important scholarship will appeal to many readers both in and outside of academia. Please see attached documents awaiting your signature. To many more books together, Professor!Big EditorLog: 26 October 2022Major Book Award Announcement to Professor for God is Change: What Octavia Butler and Buddha Both Knew About Universal Law.Log: 26 October 2022Twitter Account: @critindiginouslawFollowers: 35,000Post #1480: 1pm“So excited for Professor’s book award! Her research, you HAVE TO check for her research. The most down white ally we have y’all! As she says, #universallaw and sovereignty by any means necessary. #indigenouswarrior”Log 27 October 2022Personal Journal, Student, 5pmStudent has seen the robbery of her research unfold before her eyes. Her self esteem is gutted, she is anxious, but writing—as always—gives her a sense of being able to ride the waves of change.I finally started the formal grievance procedure. I like the word grief better than grievance. But Ahmed told us about the importance of complaint, right? Right! But...I am tired. I can’t and can believe this shit. When words fall short, there is poem. Right.Student Journal Entry 1all I rememberI am taught to forgetb.a. stands forbureau of indian affairsbut the indian is silentm.a. codes for manifest arrivalthe coldest stage of destinythe doctors, the ph.dI am talked at ofphilosophy, authorityI can’t seem to testthe hypothesis of legitimacyfor accuracy and replicabilityobjectivity is a wordcentral to their identityand they only ascribethe word robberyto meStudent Journal Entry 2the method of learningis memorydon’t forget to rememberenough to forgetyou don’t belongset adrift on memory bliss1991 r&ba sweet sound shoots an arrow througha tunnel of childhood darknessonce the waves of learninga crush of conditioningwash you awaywe will build you back correctlycut that awful hairscrub your skin a little brighteryour clothes much whiterwe will build you back correctlyperfectlyscatteredpositivelybeachedLog: 23 March 2023Twitter Account: @critindiginouslawFollowers: 52,000Post #1908-9: 6am“Friends, this is Professor, I am with the family of @critindiginouslaw. They asked me to share with her beloved community. Like many in her indigenous tribal community, she has contracted the virus.”“She is in the university hospital, receiving the best medical care. I am heartbroken for her but we are praying, join us to lift this sister up #indigenouswarrior”Log: 23 March 2023Personal Journal, StudentI feel strange today. Light headed. I can’t tell why. I am staying hydrated, I’ve been tested and I’m good. But I keep almost fainting, I think. I don’t have time or money to go to the hospital now, all this grading, and I have to work on my research. It is strange, I just wanted to share it here, at least I can know that I see myself. I need to start working out more. Get more grounded.Log: 29 March 2023Twitter Account: @critindiginouslawFollowers: 60,000Post #1910: 9am“Community, we have lost our Indian warrior. Send prayers, another victim of this virus. So so devastated. We were supposed to get matching Native Tattoos together. That is how close we were, like sisters. #indigenouswarrior”Log: 29 March 2023Personal Journal, Student, 7amI am in the hospital finally, and thank goodness. They say they have to consider intubating me. I don’t know, but I just want to get better. There is a lot of good work to do. See you on the other side.Log: 29 March 2023Medical Records: Student pronounced dead at 9am due to complications of the virus.Log: 20 March 2023Personal Journal, Studenteducationthat is one thingtheycould never take from youdaughteris your educationso I went to schooland I learnedthat she meantto tell me of the takingsas in chin to chestan arrow downshoulders curved in sorrowi learned educationis somethingtheycould never take awayand is the root of all they takethey call thiscomplexity, flux, rupture,discordance, they have manynames for thisbut never could getmy name rightLog: 1 April 2023Official University StatementWe are aware that Professor has been revealed to be the person behind a Twitter hoax involving the identity of an Indigenous woman professor, who was reported to have died of the virus. The Professor asks that her privacy be respected, she is shell-shocked at this moment, and devastated by her actions. For now, we have placed Professor on leave, and have temporarily revoked her appointment to a joint endowed professorship with the Indigenous Studies department.Log: 1 April 2023And The Unofficial Institutional EulogyWe cannot identify the bodytoo many claims at this point,liability too high on this one.Claims? Well, two.One cloaked in paperand one shines in indigo blue.There is no body here,because we cannot identifythe remains of what is wrongand what is right.Only a ghost remains, andwe shut that account down.
4.3. Story Analysis: Racial Tourism, Racial Mobilities in Action
- Racial Mobility
- Racial Tourism
Conflicts of Interest
Primary SourcesAhmed, Sara. 2019. A complaint biography. Biography 42: 514–23.Aitkenhead, Decca. Rachel Dolezal: ‘I’m Not Going to Stoop and Apologise and Grovel.’ The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/feb/25/rachel-dolezal-not-going-stoop-apologise-grovel (accessed on 25 February 2017).Associated Press. US White Male Professor Allegedly Poses as Black Immigrant Woman. Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/10/6/white-male-teacher-accused-of-posing-as-immigrant-woman (accessed on 6 October 2020).Bell, Derek. 2008. And We are Not Saved: The Elusive Quest for Racial Justice. New York: Basic Books.Bogle, Donald. 2001. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Boochani, Behrouz. 2018. No Friend but the Mountains: Writing from Manus Prison. Picador Australia.Bromwich, Jonah, Ezra Marcus. Aug. 4, 2020. A Professor Was a Twitter Hoax. The New York Times.Brubaker, Rogers. 2016. The Dolezal affair: Race, gender, and the micropolitics of identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies 39: 414–48.Butler, Octavia E. 2012. Parable of the Sower. Open Road Media, vol. 1.Cheah, Pheng. 2006. Inhuman Conditions: On Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Collins, Patricia Hill, and Sirma Bilge. 2020. Intersectionality. John Wiley & Sons.Collins, Patricia Hill. 2015. Intersectionality’s definitional dilemmas. Annual Review of Sociology 41: 1–20.Collins, Patricia Hill. 2016. Shifting the center: Race, class, and feminist theorizing about motherhood. In Mothering. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 45–65.Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams. 1988. Race, reform, and retrenchment: Transformation and legitimation in antidiscrimination law. Harvard Law Review 1331–87.Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas. 1995. Critical race theory. The Key Writings that formed the Movement. New York.Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1989. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. u. Chi. Legal F. 139.Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic. 2017. Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Press, vol. 20.Delgado, Richard. 1989. Storytelling for oppositionists and others: A plea for narrative. Michigan Law Review 87: 2411–41.Dictionary, Oxford English. 1989. Oxford english dictionary. Simpson, JA & Weiner, ESC.Duarte, Marisa Elena. 2017. Network sovereignty: Building the Internet across Indian Country. Washington, DC: University of Washington Press.Easwaran, Eknath. 2007. The Dhammapada:(Classics of Indian Spirituality). Petaluna: Nilgiri Press, vol. 3.Fanon, Frantz, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Constance Farrington. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, vol. 36.Fowler, Hayley. White Male Professor Accused of Trolling Twitter While Posing as Immigrant Woman. Miami Herald.Glover, S. Tay. 2017. “Black Lesbians—Who Will Fight for Our Lives but Us?”: Navigating Power, Belonging, Labor, Resistance, and Graduate Student Survival in the Ivory Tower. Feminist Teacher 27: 157–75.Hannam, Kevin, Mimi Sheller, and John Urry. 2006. Mobilities, Immobilities and Moorings. Mobilities 1: 1–22.Harris, Angela P., Gabriella Gutiérrez y Muhs, Yolanda Flores Niemann, Carmen G. González. 2012. Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia. Niwot: University Press of Colorado.Harris, Cheryl I. 1996. Finding Sojourner’s Truth: Race, Gender, and the Institution of Property. Cardozo L. Rev. 18: 309.Heilman, Madeline E., Caryn J. Block, and Jonathan A. Lucas. 1992. Presumed incompetent? Stigmatization and affirmative action efforts. Journal of Applied Psychology 77: 536. Available online: https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/national/article246257250.html (accessed on 6 October 2020).Hune, Shirley, Eliza Noh, Jane Junn, K. Mai’a, Cara Maffini Pham, Melody Yee, Jing Mai, Shannon Deloso, Kaozong N. Mouavangsou, Cindy Nhi Huynh, et al. 2019. Fight the Tower: Asian American Women Scholars’ Resistance and Renewal in the Academy. New York: Rutgers University Press.Jessica Krug, Rachel Dolezal and America’s White Women Who Want to Be Black. NBC News. Available online:https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/jessica-krug-rachel-dolezal-america-s-white-women-who-want-ncna1239418 (accessed on 7 September 2020).Kaushik-Brown, Roopa. Toward Yoga as Property. 2016. Yoga, the Body, and Embodied Social Change: An Intersectional Feminist Analysis, 67–89.Keeler, Jacqueline. I Guess I Realize Now How Much Being American Indian or Native American Is a Brand or a Desirable Commodity to the Millions Who Want to Be Us.#Pretendians #Rebeccaroanhorse #Bethann #Annitalucchesi #Matiwaiya. Twitter. Twitter. https://twitter.com/jfkeeler/status/1290899323887079426 (accessed on 5 August 2020).Kempadoo, Kamala. 1999. Continuities and change. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean 3.Kentayya, Shalini. Coded Bias. [film] Netflix. 2020. Available online: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt11394170/ (accessed on 15 April 2021).Le Espiritu, Yen. 2014. Body Counts: The Vietnam War and Militarized Refugees. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.Levenson, Michael. Professor Investigated for Posing as Black Has Resigned, University Says. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/09/us/jessica-krug-george-washington-university.html (accessed on 9 September 2020).Lhamon, William T. 1998. Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop. Harvard University Press.Linskey, Annie, and Amy Gardener. 2019. Elizabeth Warren Apologizes for Calling Herself Native American. Washington Post, February 5. Available online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/elizabeth-warren-apologizes-for-calling-herself-native-american/2019/02/05/1627df76–2962-11e9–984d-9b8fba003e81_story.html (accessed on 15 March 2021).Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, and Teresa L. McCarty. 2002. When tribal sovereignty challenges democracy: American Indian education and the democratic ideal. American Educational Research Journal 39: 279–305.Lott, Eric. 2013. Love & Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Manning, Adrian SA. 2020. The Differing Shades of Redface: The Evolving Image of Native Americans in Hollywood Comedies. Studies in American Humor 6: 301–22.McMains, Juliet. 2001. Brownface: Representations of Latin-ness in dancesport. Dance Research Journal 33: 54–71.Moore, Mignon R. 2017. Women of color in the academy: Navigating multiple intersections and multiple hierarchies. Social Problems 64:: 200–5.Nakamura, Lisa. 1995. Race in/for cyberspace: Identity tourism and racial passing on the Internet. Works and Days 13: 181–93.Patton, Stacey. 2015. Rachel Dolezal Case Leaves a Campus Bewildered and Some Scholars Disgusted. The Chronicle of Higher Education, June 17. Available online: https://www.chronicle.com/article/rachel-dolezal-case-leaves-a-campus-bewildered-and-some-scholars-disgusted/ (accessed on 15 March 2021).Pérez, Raúl. 2016. Brownface Minstrelsy:”José Jiménez,” the Civil Rights Movement, and the legacy of racist comedy. Ethnicities 16: 40–67.Pewewardy, Cornel, and Bruce Frey. 2004. American Indian students’ perceptions of racial climate, multicultural support services, and ethnic fraud at a predominantly white university. Journal of American Indian Education 32–60.Shivers, Kaia, Alice Nichols, and Sherice Janaye Nelson. “Blackface in the Academy: Black Professors Address White Female Academics Who Stole Black Women’s Identities.” The Remedy Podcast, Ark Republic. Available online: https://www.arkrepublic.com/2020/10/06/blackface-in-the-academy-black-professors-address-white-female-academics-who-stole-black-womens-identities-the-remedy/ (accessed on 6 October 2020).Singh, Roopa Bala. 2019. How Yoga Became “White:” Yoga Mobilities, Race, and the U.S. Settler. Nation (1937–2018). Tempe: Arizona State University, 231p; 22592401. Available online: https://www.proquest.com/docview/2288107709 (accessed on 12 April 2021).Singh, Roopa Bala. 2020. Yoga’s Entry Into American Popular Music Is Racialized (1941–67) A Critical Yoga Studies Analysis of Race, Othering, and “Belonging”. Resonance: The Journal of Sound and Culture 1: 132–62.Thornton, Cedric. 2020. Black Lives Matter Activist Exposed As White Woman Pretending to Be Black. Black Enterprise. Black Enterprise, September 24. Available online: https://www.blackenterprise.com/black-lives-matter-activist-exposed-as-white-woman-pretending-to-be-black/ (accessed on 15 March 2021).Tofighian, Omid. 2020. Introducing Manus prison theory: Knowing border violence. Globalizations, 1–19.Valverde, Kieu-Linh Caroline. 2013. Fight the tower: A call to action for women of color in academia. Seattle J. Soc. Just. 12: 367.Van Den Berghe, Pierre L.; Keyes, Charles F. 1984. Introduction tourism and re-created ethnicity. Annals of Tourism Research 11: 343–52. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(84)90026-4.Weill, Kelly. 2020. White Male Prof Allegedly Posed as Woman of Color to Bully Women. Daily Beast, October 6. Available online: https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-science-femme-was-allegedly-a-white-male-professor-who-posed-as-woman-of-color-and-bullied-women (accessed on 15 March 2021).y Muhs, Gabriella Gutiérrez, Yolanda Flores Niemann, Carmen G. González, and Angela P. Harris, eds. 2012. Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia. Niwot: University Press of Colorado.Yang, Tseming. 2005. Choice and fraud in racial identification: The dilemma of policing race in affirmative action, the Census, and a color-blind society. Mich. J. Race & L. 11: 367.Young, James O., and Conrad G. Brunk, eds. 2012. The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Abram, Simone, Jacqueline D. Waldren, and Don V. Macleod. 1997. Tourists and Tourism: Identifying with People and Places. London: Routledge, Berg. [Google Scholar]
- Ahmed, Sara. 2004. Affective economies. Social Text 22: 117–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Amoamo, Maria. 2007. Māori tourism: Image and identity—A postcolonial perspective. Annals of Leisure Research 10: 454–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Appiah, Kwame. 2020. The Ethicist: I’m Jewish and Don’t Identify as White. Why Must I Check That Box? The New York Times, October 13. [Google Scholar]
- Bell, Derrick A. Jr. 1980. Brown v. Board of Education and the interest-convergence dilemma. Harvard Law Review 93: 518–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bell, Derrick. 1989. After we’re gone: Prudent speculations on America in a post-racial epoch. Louis ULJ 34: 393. [Google Scholar]
- Bell, Derrick. 2000. Space Traders. Dark Matter: A Century of Speculative Fiction from the African Diaspora. New York: Warner. [Google Scholar]
- Bell, Lee Anne. 2019. Storytelling for Social Justice: Connecting Narrative and the Arts in Antiracist Teaching. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Blackburn, Daniel G. 2000. Why Race is Not a Biological Concept. In Race and Racism in Theory and Practice. Edited by Berel Lang. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. [Google Scholar]
- Bloome, Deirdre, and Bruce Western. 2011. Cohort change and racial differences in educational and income mobility. Social Forces 90: 375–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brooks, Scott N., and Michael A. McKail. 2008. A Theory of the preferred worker: A structural explanation for black male dominance in basketball. Critical Sociology 34: 369–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bruner, Edward M. 2001. The Maasai and the Lion King: Authenticity, nationalism, and globalization in African tourism. American Ethnologist 28: 881–908. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carpio, Genevieve, Natchee Blu Barnd, and Laura Barraclough. 2019. CFP Mobilities and Settler Colonialism. Available online: https://networks.h-net.org/node/73374/announcements/4060728/cfp-mobilities-and-settler-colonialism (accessed on 12 April 2021).
- Clair, Matthew, and Jeffrey S. Denis. 2015. Sociology of racism. The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences 19: 857–63. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, William. 1991. At Freedom’s edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861–1915. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. [Google Scholar]
- Cresswell, Tim. 2010. Towards a politics of mobility. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28: 17–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cresswell, Tim. 2012. Mobilities II: Still. Progress in Human Geography 36: 645–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Crowder, Kyle. 2000. The racial context of white mobility: An individual-level assessment of the white flight hypothesis. Social Science Research 29: 223–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De La Garza, Antonio, and Kent A. Ono. 2016. Critical Race Theory. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy. Edited by Klaus Bruhn Jensen and Robert T. Craig. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]
- Dembroff, Robin, and Dee Payton. 2020. Why We Shouldn’t Compare Transracial to Transgender Identity. Boston Review. November 18. Available online: http://bostonreview.net/race-philosophy-religion-gender-sexuality/robin-dembroff-dee-payton-why-we-shouldnt-compare (accessed on 15 April 2021).
- Dixon, Terence, ed. 2020. Meeting the Man: James Baldwin in Paris. IMDb. IMDb.com. Available online: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0412990/ (accessed on 12 April 2021).
- Duncan, James, and Derek Gregory, eds. 2002. Writes of Passage: Reading Travel Writin. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Flores, Lisa A. 2020. Stoppage and the racialized rhetorics of mobility. Western Journal of Communication 84: 247–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gilmore, Ruth Wilson. 2007. Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California. Berkeley: Univ of California Press, vol. 21. [Google Scholar]
- Hague, Euan. 2010. ‘The right to enter every other state’—The Supreme Court and African American mobility in the United States. Mobilities 5: 331–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hannam, K. 2004. India and the ambivalences of diaspora tourism. In Tourism, Diasporas and Space. Edited by T. Coles and D. J. Timothy. London: Routledge, pp. 246–60. [Google Scholar]
- Harris, Angela P. 1990. Race and essentialism in feminist legal theory. Stanford Law Review 2: 581–616. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harris, Cheryl I. 1993. Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review 106: 1707–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Holmes, Prue. 2016. Navigating Languages and Interculturality in the Research Process: The Ethics and Positionality of the Researcher and the Researched. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Houston, Donna. 2013. Environmental justice storytelling: Angels and isotopes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Antipode 45: 417–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lanfant, Marie-Françoise, John B. Allcock, and Edward M. Bruner, eds. 1995. International Tourism: Identity and Change. Thousand Oaks: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, Jennifer. 2015. From undesirable to marriageable: Hyper-selectivity and the racial mobility of Asian Americans. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 662: 79–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Levit, Nancy. 2009. Legal Storytelling: The Theory and the Practice—Reflective Writing Across the Curriculum. Journal of the Legal Writing Institute 15: 259. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1144797 (accessed on 12 May 2009).
- Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. 1995. They Called it Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln: U of Nebraska Press. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, Craig. 2011. Desperate passage: Violent mobilities and the politics of discomfort. Journal of Transport Geography 19: 1046–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martin, Judith, and Thomas Nakayama. 2012. Intercultural Communication in Contexts: Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, ISBN 978-0-07-776942-0. [Google Scholar]
- Massaro, Toni M. 1988. Empathy, legal storytelling, and the rule of law: New words, old wounds. Michigan Law Review 87: 2099. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Matsuda, Mari J. 1987. Looking to the bottom: Critical legal studies and reparations. Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review 22: 323. [Google Scholar]
- McIntosh, Alison J., Tom Hinch, and Takiora Ingram. 2002. Cultural identity and tourism. International Journal of Arts Management 4: 39–49. [Google Scholar]
- Mendenhall, Ruby, Stefanie DeLuca, and Greg Duncan. 2006. Neighborhood resources, racial segregation, and economic mobility: Results from the Gautreaux program. Social Science Research 35: 892–923. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parks, Virginia. 2016. Rosa Parks redux: Racial mobility projects on the journey to work. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106: 292–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peck, Raoul. 2017. I Am Not Your Negro. [Documentary written by James Baldwin]. Velvet Film, Artemis Productions, Close-Up Films. Available online: http://www.iamnotyournegrofilm.com/ (accessed on 12 April 2021).
- Phillips, Louise G. 2010. Social justice storytelling and young children’s active citizenship. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 31: 363–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Picard, Michel, and Robert E. Wood, eds. 1997. Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. [Google Scholar]
- Pitchford, Susan, and Jafar Jafari. 2008. Identity Tourism: Imaging and Imagining the Nation. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing, ISBN 978-0-08–046618-7. [Google Scholar]
- Purnell, Dereka. 2021. The George Floyd Act wouldn’t have saved George Floyd’s life. That says it all. The Guardian, March 4. [Google Scholar]
- Saperstein, Aliya, and Aaron Gullickson. 2013. A “mulatto escape hatch” in the United States? Examining evidence of racial and social mobility during the Jim Crow era. Demography 50: 1921–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shorter, David Delgado. 2015. I’m Not an Indian. It’s okay. Blog (https://davidshorter.com). Originally published as, “Four Words for Andrea Smith: I’m Not an Indian”. Indian Country Today. July 1. Available online: https://www.davidshorter.com/uploads/1/0/9/3/10932014/i%E2%80%99m_not_indian_w_preface.pdf (accessed on 18 February 2021).
- Solorzano, Daniel G., and Tara J. Yosso. 2001. Critical race and LatCrit theory and method: Counter-storytelling. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 14: 471–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Taylor, George H. 2003. Racism as the Nation’s Crucial Sin: Theology and Derrick Bell. Michigan Journal of Race & Law 9: 269. [Google Scholar]
- Tran, Van C., Jennifer Lee, Oshin Khachikian, and Jess Lee. 2018. Hyper-selectivity, racial mobility, and the remaking of race. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 4: 188–209. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tribe, John. 2007. Critical tourism: Rules and resistance. In The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methodologies. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 29–40. [Google Scholar]
- Vats, Anjali. 2014. Racechange Is the New Black: Racial Accessorizing and Racial Tourism in High Fashion as Constraints on Rhetorical Agency. Communication, Culture & Critique 7: 112–35. [Google Scholar]
- Williams, Patricia J. 1991. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Wolfe, Patrick. 2006. Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native. Journal of Genocide Research 8: 387–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wolfe, Patrick. 2016. Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Woolley, Agnes. 2017. Narrative instabilities, confines, entanglements with legal technology. Narrating the “Asylum Story”: Between literary and legal storytelling. Interventions 19: 376–394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Singh, R.B. A Critical Yoga Studies Approach to Grappling with Race: Introducing “Racial Tourism,” “Racial Mobilities,” and “Justice Storytelling” in the Context of Racial Fraud in the Academy. Genealogy 2021, 5, 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/genealogy5020044
Singh RB. A Critical Yoga Studies Approach to Grappling with Race: Introducing “Racial Tourism,” “Racial Mobilities,” and “Justice Storytelling” in the Context of Racial Fraud in the Academy. Genealogy. 2021; 5(2):44. https://doi.org/10.3390/genealogy5020044Chicago/Turabian Style
Singh, Roopa Bala. 2021. "A Critical Yoga Studies Approach to Grappling with Race: Introducing “Racial Tourism,” “Racial Mobilities,” and “Justice Storytelling” in the Context of Racial Fraud in the Academy" Genealogy 5, no. 2: 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/genealogy5020044