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State-of-Charge Monitoring by Impedance Spectroscopy during Long-Term Self-Discharge of Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Batteries

Electrochemistry Laboratory, University of Applied Sciences (OTH), Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring 23, 92224 Amberg, Germany
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Applied Sciences (OTH), 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2018, 4(3), 35;
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
PDF [2761 KB, uploaded 1 August 2018]


Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of several commercially available supercapacitors. It is found that the kinetics of the self-discharge of supercapacitors comprises at least two characteristic time constants in the range of days and months. The curvature of the Nyquist curve at frequencies above 10 Hz (charge transfer resistance) depends on the available electric charge as well, but it is of little use for applications. Lithium-ion batteries demonstrate a linear correlation between voltage and capacitance as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. View Full-Text
Keywords: capacitance; state-of-charge monitoring; self-discharge; supercapacitor; aging capacitance; state-of-charge monitoring; self-discharge; supercapacitor; aging

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kurzweil, P.; Shamonin, M. State-of-Charge Monitoring by Impedance Spectroscopy during Long-Term Self-Discharge of Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Batteries. Batteries 2018, 4, 35.

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