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Article

Determination of Foam Stability in Lager Beers Using Digital Image Analysis of Images Obtained Using RGB and 3D Cameras

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Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Information Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Kneza Trpimira 2B, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sigfredo Fuentes
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020046
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Digital Technologies on Beverage Fermentation)
Foam stability and retention is an important indicator of beer quality and freshness. A full, white head of foam with nicely distributed small bubbles of CO2 is appealing to the consumers and the crown of the production process. However, raw materials, production process, packaging, transportation, and storage have a big impact on foam stability, which marks foam stability monitoring during all these stages, from production to consumer, as very important. Beer foam stability is expressed as a change of foam height over a certain period. This research aimed to monitor the foam stability of lager beers using image analysis methods on two different types of recordings: RGB and depth videos. Sixteen different commercially available lager beers were subjected to analysis. The automated image analysis method based only on the analysis of RGB video images proved to be inapplicable in real conditions due to problems such as reflection of light through glass, autofocus, and beer lacing/clinging, which make it impossible to accurately detect the actual height of the foam. A solution to this problem, representing a unique contribution, was found by introducing the use of a 3D camera in estimating foam stability. According to the results, automated analysis of depth images obtained from a 3D camera proved to be a suitable, objective, repeatable, reliable, and sufficiently sensitive method for measuring foam stability of lager beers. The applied model proved to be suitable for predicting changes in foam retention of lager beers. View Full-Text
Keywords: foam stability; image analysis; lager beer; foam retention foam stability; image analysis; lager beer; foam retention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nyarko, E.K.; Glavaš, H.; Habschied, K.; Mastanjević, K. Determination of Foam Stability in Lager Beers Using Digital Image Analysis of Images Obtained Using RGB and 3D Cameras. Fermentation 2021, 7, 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020046

AMA Style

Nyarko EK, Glavaš H, Habschied K, Mastanjević K. Determination of Foam Stability in Lager Beers Using Digital Image Analysis of Images Obtained Using RGB and 3D Cameras. Fermentation. 2021; 7(2):46. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nyarko, Emmanuel K.; Glavaš, Hrvoje; Habschied, Kristina; Mastanjević, Krešimir. 2021. "Determination of Foam Stability in Lager Beers Using Digital Image Analysis of Images Obtained Using RGB and 3D Cameras" Fermentation 7, no. 2: 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020046

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