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Saccharomyces arboricola and Its Hybrids’ Propensity for Sake Production: Interspecific Hybrids Reveal Increased Fermentation Abilities and a Mosaic Metabolic Profile

1
Graduate School of Advanced Health Sciences, Saga University, 1, Honjo, Saga city, Saga 840-8502, Japan
2
Biology Department, West Virginia University, 53 Campus Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506-6057, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2020, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010014
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation 2.0)
The use of interspecific hybrids during the industrial fermentation process has been well established, positioning the frontier of advancement in brewing to capitalize on the potential of Saccharomyces hybridization. Interspecific yeast hybrids used in modern monoculture inoculations benefit from a wide range of volatile metabolites that broaden the organoleptic complexity. This is the first report of sake brewing by Saccharomyces arboricola and its hybrids. S. arboricola x S. cerevisiae direct-mating generated cryotolerant interspecific hybrids which increased yields of ethanol and ethyl hexanoate compared to parental strains, important flavor attributes of fine Japanese ginjo sake rice wine. Hierarchical clustering heatmapping with principal component analysis for metabolic profiling was used in finding low levels of endogenous amino/organic acids clustered S. arboricola apart from the S. cerevisiae industrial strains. In sake fermentations, hybrid strains showed a mosaic profile of parental strains, while metabolic analysis suggested S. arboricola had a lower amino acid net uptake than S. cerevisiae. Additionally, this research found an increase in ethanolic fermentation from pyruvate and increased sulfur metabolism. Together, these results suggest S. arboricola is poised for in-depth metabolomic exploration in sake fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: sake; fermentation; hybrid; ginjo; ethanol; ethyl hexanoate; isoamyl acetate; yeast; Saccharomyces; metabolism sake; fermentation; hybrid; ginjo; ethanol; ethyl hexanoate; isoamyl acetate; yeast; Saccharomyces; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Winans, M.J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Fujimaru, Y.; Kusaba, Y.; Gallagher, J.E.G.; Kitagaki, H. Saccharomyces arboricola and Its Hybrids’ Propensity for Sake Production: Interspecific Hybrids Reveal Increased Fermentation Abilities and a Mosaic Metabolic Profile. Fermentation 2020, 6, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010014

AMA Style

Winans MJ, Yamamoto Y, Fujimaru Y, Kusaba Y, Gallagher JEG, Kitagaki H. Saccharomyces arboricola and Its Hybrids’ Propensity for Sake Production: Interspecific Hybrids Reveal Increased Fermentation Abilities and a Mosaic Metabolic Profile. Fermentation. 2020; 6(1):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Winans, Matthew J., Yuki Yamamoto, Yuki Fujimaru, Yuki Kusaba, Jennifer E.G. Gallagher, and Hiroshi Kitagaki. 2020. "Saccharomyces arboricola and Its Hybrids’ Propensity for Sake Production: Interspecific Hybrids Reveal Increased Fermentation Abilities and a Mosaic Metabolic Profile" Fermentation 6, no. 1: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010014

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