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Open AccessArticle

Biodegradation of Residues from the Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) Essential Oil Extraction and Their Potential for Enzyme Production Using Native Xylaria Fungi from Southern Ecuador

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Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Sección de Ecología y Sistemática, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto s/n C.P., Loja 110160, Ecuador
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Departamento de Geología, Minas e Ingeniería Civil (DGMIC), Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto s/n C.P., Loja 110160, Ecuador
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Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí, El Cabrero, David, Chiriquí PO Box 0427, Panama
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Departamento de Botánica, Ecología y Fisiología Vegetal, Universidad de Córdoba, Ed. Celestino Mutis, 3ª pta., Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
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Departamento de Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Sección de Ecología, Universidad de Jaén, España, Campus Las Lagunillas, Edificio Ciencias Experimentales y de la Salud (B3), 23071 Jaén, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030076
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Wastes: Feedstock for Value-Added Products)
The degradation dynamics of lignin and cellulose were analyzed by means of a solid state biodegradation experiment, using residues from the essential oil extraction of the Palo Santo tree (Bursera graveolens). As such, two native Xylaria spp. and an exotic mushroom Trametes versicolor were incubated on the spent substrate (Residues of B. Graveolens, BGR’s). The relatively high lignin and cellulose contents of the BGRs (9.1% and 19%, respectively) indicated the potential of this resource for the production of methane (biogas) and ethanol. However, the degradation of the lignin and cellulose content could be traced back to the relatively high activity of the enzymes laccase, cellulase, and xylanase, produced by the fungi. The results showed that laccase (30.0 U/L and 26.6 U/L), cellulase (27.3 U/L and 35.8 U/L) and xylanase (189.7U/L and 128.3 U/L) activities of Xylaria feejeensis and Xylaria cf. microceras were generally higher than T. versicolor (9.0 U/L, 29.5 U/L, 99.5 U/L respectively). Furthermore, the total carbon (TC: 47.3%), total nitrogen (TN: 1.5%), total phosphorus (TP: 0.2%) and total potassium (TK: 1.2%) dynamics were analyzed during the experiment and their importance for the degradation process highlighted. The results of this work might serve as guidance for future studies in dry forest areas, while furthering the understanding of the potential use of native fungi as ecologic lignocellulosic decomposers and for industrial proposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Decomposition dynamics; Bursera graveolens waste; Xylariaceae; laccase; cellulase; xylanase Decomposition dynamics; Bursera graveolens waste; Xylariaceae; laccase; cellulase; xylanase
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Carrión-Paladines, V.; Fries, A.; Caballero, R.E.; Pérez Daniëls, P.; García-Ruiz, R. Biodegradation of Residues from the Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) Essential Oil Extraction and Their Potential for Enzyme Production Using Native Xylaria Fungi from Southern Ecuador. Fermentation 2019, 5, 76.

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