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Effects of the Starch Molecular Structures in Barley Malts and Rice Adjuncts on Brewing Performance

1
Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu Province, China
2
Centre for Nutrition and Food Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072 Australia
3
Co-Innovation Centre for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2018, 4(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4040103
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Abstract

Background: Achieving optimal fermentation is challenging when the variation within malt starch structure and enzyme activities are not part of the standard malting specifications. This study explores how the variation of starch and starch amylolytic enzymes in both malts and rice adjuncts affect the mashing and the subsequent yeast fermentation in the laboratory-scale production of beer. Results: The addition of rice adjuncts significantly increased the maltose content whilst reducing the glucose content during mashing. The maltotriose content, released during mashing, was significantly negatively correlated with the total amylose content (r = −0.64, p < 0.05), and significantly negatively correlated with the number of amylopectin longer chains (degree of polymerization 37–100) (r = −0.75, p < 0.01). During fermentation, while the content of maltotriose significantly and positively correlated with both the rate and amount of ethanol production (r = 0.70, p < 0.05; r = 0.70, p < 0.05, respectively), the content of soluble nitrogen in the wort was significantly and positively correlated with both the rate and the amount of ethanol production (r = 0.63, p< 0.05; r = 0.62, p < 0.05, respectively). The amount of amylopectin with longer chains was; however, significantly negatively correlated with the ethanol production (r = −0.06, p < 0.05). Small variations among the ethanol concentration and the rate of ethanol production during fermentation were found with the addition of different rice varieties. Conclusions: The effects of the rice adjuncts on the performance of fermentation depends on the properties of the malt, including the protein modification and malt enzyme activities. This study provides data to improve standard malt specifications in order for brewers to acquire more efficient fermentation, and includes useful molecular structural characterisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural characterisation; size-exclusion chromatography; barley (hordeum vulgare); rice adjuncts; amylose; amylopectin; yeast fermentation; ethanol structural characterisation; size-exclusion chromatography; barley (hordeum vulgare); rice adjuncts; amylose; amylopectin; yeast fermentation; ethanol
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Yu, W.; Quek, W.P.; Li, C.; Gilbert, R.G.; Fox, G.P. Effects of the Starch Molecular Structures in Barley Malts and Rice Adjuncts on Brewing Performance. Fermentation 2018, 4, 103.

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