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Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 15;

Adding Flavor to Beverages with Non-Conventional Yeasts

Carlsberg Research Laboratory, Yeast & Fermentation, J. C. Jacobsens Gade 4, DK-1799 Copenhagen V, Denmark
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Research and Innovation Centre, Food Quality and Nutrition Department, Via E. Mach 1, I-38010 S. Michele all′Adige, Italy
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, 1000 GG Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Research Group of Microbiology (MICR)—Functional Yeast Genomics, BE-1050 Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Evolva SA, Duggingerstrasse 23, CH-4153 Reinach, Switzerland.
Current address: Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, DK-2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 2.0)
PDF [2535 KB, uploaded 26 February 2018]


Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary and secondary metabolism. In the beverage industry, these volatiles contribute to the the flavor and aroma profile of the final products. We evaluated the fermentation ability and aroma profiles of non-conventional yeasts that have been associated with various food sources. A total of 60 strains were analyzed with regard to their fermentation and flavor profile. Species belonging to the genera Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces separated best from lager yeast strains according to a principal component analysis taking alcohol and ester production into account. The speed of fermentation and sugar utilization were analysed for these strains. Volatile aroma-compound formation was assayed via gas chromatography. Several strains produced substantially higher amounts of aroma alcohols and esters compared to the lager yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. Consequently, co-fermentation of this lager yeast strain with a Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain generated an increased fruity-flavour profile. This demonstrates that mixed fermentations utilizing non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity can enhance the flavour profiles of fermented beverages. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma profiling; solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME–GC/MS); yeast; Saccharomycetes; fermentation; volatile organic compound (VOC); aroma aroma profiling; solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME–GC/MS); yeast; Saccharomycetes; fermentation; volatile organic compound (VOC); aroma

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Ravasio, D.; Carlin, S.; Boekhout, T.; Groenewald, M.; Vrhovsek, U.; Walther, A.; Wendland, J. Adding Flavor to Beverages with Non-Conventional Yeasts. Fermentation 2018, 4, 15.

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