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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering

1
Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El-Bohouth St. (former El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. Box 12622 Giza, Egypt
2
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21577, Saudi Arabia
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Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo, Egypt
4
Jena Microbial Resource Collection, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology—Hans Knöll Institute, 07745 Jena, Germany
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Department Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science, Friedrich, Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
6
National Research Centre, 33-El-Bohouth St. (former El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. Box 12622 Giza, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010016
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites)
Scarcity of the non-renewable energy sources, global warming, environmental pollution, and raising the cost of petroleum are the motive for the development of renewable, eco-friendly fuels production with low costs. Bioethanol production is one of the promising materials that can subrogate the petroleum oil, and it is considered recently as a clean liquid fuel or a neutral carbon. Diverse microorganisms such as yeasts and bacteria are able to produce bioethanol on a large scale, which can satisfy our daily needs with cheap and applicable methods. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis are two of the pioneer yeasts in ethanol production due to their abilities to produce a high amount of ethanol. The recent focus is directed towards lignocellulosic biomass that contains 30–50% cellulose and 20–40% hemicellulose, and can be transformed into glucose and fundamentally xylose after enzymatic hydrolysis. For this purpose, a number of various approaches have been used to engineer different pathways for improving the bioethanol production with simultaneous fermentation of pentose and hexoses sugars in the yeasts. These approaches include metabolic and flux analysis, modeling and expression analysis, followed by targeted deletions or the overexpression of key genes. In this review, we highlight and discuss the current status of yeasts genetic engineering for enhancing bioethanol production, and the conditions that influence bioethanol production. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioethanol; fermentation; metabolic engineering; biofuel; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Pichia stipitis bioethanol; fermentation; metabolic engineering; biofuel; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Pichia stipitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Selim, K.A.; El-Ghwas, D.E.; Easa, S.M.; Abdelwahab Hassan, M.I. Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering. Fermentation 2018, 4, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010016

AMA Style

Selim KA, El-Ghwas DE, Easa SM, Abdelwahab Hassan MI. Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering. Fermentation. 2018; 4(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Selim, Khaled A.; El-Ghwas, Dina E.; Easa, Saadia M.; Abdelwahab Hassan, Mohamed I. 2018. "Bioethanol a Microbial Biofuel Metabolite; New Insights of Yeasts Metabolic Engineering" Fermentation 4, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010016

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