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Article

An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38221 Volos, Greece
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of West Attica, Thivon 250, 12241 Aigaleo, Greece
3
Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Thessaly, 35100 Lamia, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pavel S. Berloff
Fluids 2021, 6(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030097
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
A computational method for optimum magnetic navigation of nanoparticles that are coated with anticancer drug inside the human vascular system is presented in this study. For this reason a 3D carotid model is employed. The present model use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) techniques along with Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) evolution strategy for the evaluation of the optimal values of the gradient magnetic field. Under the influence of the blood flow the model evaluates the effect of different values of the gradient magnetic field in order to minimize the distance of particles from a pre-described desired trajectory. Results indicate that the diameter of particles is a crucial parameter for an effective magnetic navigation. The present numerical model can navigate nanoparticles with diameter above 500 nm with an efficiency of approximately 99%. It is found that the velocity of the blood seems to play insignificant role in the navigation process. A reduction of 25% in the inlet velocity leads the particles only 3% closer to the desired trajectory. Finally, the computational method is more efficient as the diameter of the vascular system is minimized because of the weak convective flow. Under a reduction of 50% in the diameter of the carotid artery the computational method navigate the particles approximately 75% closer to the desired trajectory. The present numerical model can be used as a tool for the determination of the parameters that mostly affect the magnetic navigation method. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Discrete Element Method (DEM); Covariacne Matrix Evolution Strategy (CMAES); magnetic navigation; drug delivery nanoparticles; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Discrete Element Method (DEM); Covariacne Matrix Evolution Strategy (CMAES); magnetic navigation; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karvelas, E.; Liosis, C.; Theodorakakos, A.; Sarris, I.; Karakasidis, T. An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries. Fluids 2021, 6, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030097

AMA Style

Karvelas E, Liosis C, Theodorakakos A, Sarris I, Karakasidis T. An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries. Fluids. 2021; 6(3):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karvelas, Evangelos, Christos Liosis, Andreas Theodorakakos, Ioannis Sarris, and Theodoros Karakasidis. 2021. "An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries" Fluids 6, no. 3: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030097

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