Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Impact of Inflow Boundary Conditions on the Calculation of CT-Based FFR
Previous Article in Journal
Stability of Periodic, Traveling-Wave Solutions to the Capillary Whitham Equation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stenosis Indicators Applied to Patient-Specific Renal Arteries without and with Stenosis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Efficiently Generating Mixing by Combining Differing Small Amplitude Helical Geometries

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fluids 2019, 4(2), 59;
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
PDF [12066 KB, uploaded 27 March 2019]


Helical geometries have been used in recent years to form cardiovascular prostheses such as stents and shunts. The helical geometry has been found to induce swirling flow, promoting in-plane mixing. This is hypothesised to reduce the formation of thrombosis and neo-intimal hyperplasia, in turn improving device patency and reducing re-implantation rates. In this paper we investigate whether joining together two helical geometries, of differing helical radii, in a repeating sequence, can produce significant gains in mixing effectiveness, by embodying a ‘streamline crossing’ flow environment. Since the computational cost of calculating particle trajectories over extended domains is high, in this work we devised a procedure for efficiently exploring the large parameter space of possible geometry combinations. Velocity fields for the single geometries were first obtained using the spectral/hp element method. These were then discontinuously concatenated, in series, for the particle tracking based mixing analysis of the combined geometry. Full computations of the most promising combined geometries were then performed. Mixing efficiency was evaluated quantitatively using Poincaré sections, particle residence time data, and information entropy. Excellent agreement was found between the idealised (concatenated flow field) and the full simulations of mixing performance, revealing that a strict discontinuity between velocity fields is not required for mixing enhancement, via streamline crossing, to occur. Optimal mixing was found to occur for the combination R = 0.2 D and R = 0.5 D , producing a 70 % increase in mixing, compared with standard single helical designs. The findings of this work point to the benefits of swirl disruption and suggest concatenation as an efficient means to determine optimal configurations of repeating geometries for future designs of vascular prostheses. View Full-Text
Keywords: laminar flow; bypass graft; shunt; combined helical pipes; chaotic advection; streamline crossing; spectral/hp element method laminar flow; bypass graft; shunt; combined helical pipes; chaotic advection; streamline crossing; spectral/hp element method

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cookson, A.N.; Doorly, D.J.; Sherwin, S.J. Efficiently Generating Mixing by Combining Differing Small Amplitude Helical Geometries. Fluids 2019, 4, 59.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Fluids EISSN 2311-5521 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top