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Fluids 2019, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4010020

A Model for Fuel Spray Formation with Atomizing Air

1
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
2
Scientific Computing, Research & Engineering IT, ExxonMobil Technical Computing Company, Annandale, NJ 08801, USA
3
NextEra energy, Juno Beach, FL 33408, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract

The formation of a liquid spray emanating from a nozzle in the presence of atomizing air was studied using a computational model approach that accounted for the deformation and break up of droplets. Particular attention was given to the formation of sprays under non-swirling flow conditions. The instantaneous fluctuating fluid velocity and velocity gradient components were evaluated with the use of a probability density function (PDF)-based Langevin equation. Motions of atomized fuel droplets were analyzed, and ensemble and time averaging were used for evaluating the statistical properties of the spray. Effects of shape change of droplets, and their breakup, as well as evaporation, were included in the model. The simulation results showed that the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the droplets vary significantly with their size and shape. Furthermore, the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the evaporating droplet differed somewhat from non-evaporating droplets. Droplet turbulence diffusivities, however, were found to be close to the diffusivity of fluid point particles. The droplet velocity, concentration, and size of the simulated spray were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was found. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid spray; droplet; breakup; evaporation liquid spray; droplet; breakup; evaporation
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Schmidt, D.J.; Kvasnak, W.; Ahmadi, G. A Model for Fuel Spray Formation with Atomizing Air. Fluids 2019, 4, 20.

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