Next Article in Journal
Uncertainty Quantification at the Molecular–Continuum Model Interface
Next Article in Special Issue
Aorta Ascending Aneurysm Analysis Using CFD Models towards Possible Anomalies
Previous Article in Journal
Emulsion Flow Analysis of a Sensor Probe for Sustainable Machine Operation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Large Eddy Simulation of Pulsatile Flow through a Channel with Double Constriction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

A Quasi-Mechanistic Mathematical Representation for Blood Viscosity

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Goodarz Ahmadi
Fluids 2017, 2(1), 10;
Received: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
PDF [3188 KB, uploaded 3 March 2017]


Blood viscosity is a crucial element for any computation of flow fields in the vasculature or blood-wetted devices. Although blood is comprised of multiple elements, and its viscosity can vary widely depending on several factors, in practical applications, it is commonly assumed to be a homogeneous, Newtonian fluid with a nominal viscosity typically of 3.5 cP. Two quasi-mechanistic models for viscosity are presented here, built on the foundation of the Krieger model of suspensions, in which dependencies on shear rate, hematocrit, and plasma protein concentrations are explicitly represented. A 3-parameter Asymptotic Krieger model (AKM) exhibited excellent agreement with published Couette experiments over four decades of shear rate (0–1000 s-1, root mean square (RMS) error = 0.21 cP). A 5-parameter Modified Krieger Model (MKM5) also demonstrated a very good fit to the data (RMS error = 1.74 cP). These models avoid discontinuities exhibited by previous models with respect to hematocrit and shear rate. In summary, the quasi-mechanistic, Modified-Krieger Model presented here offers a reasonable compromise in complexity to provide flexibility to account for several factors that affect viscosity in practical applications, while assuring accuracy and stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemorheology; shear thinning; blood viscosity; aggregation; Krieger model hemorheology; shear thinning; blood viscosity; aggregation; Krieger model

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hund, S.J.; Kameneva, M.V.; Antaki, J.F. A Quasi-Mechanistic Mathematical Representation for Blood Viscosity. Fluids 2017, 2, 10.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Fluids EISSN 2311-5521 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top