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Article

Yeasts in Liquid Swine Diets: Identification Methods, Growth Temperatures and Gas-Formation Potential

1
Institute for Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, 30173 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, 30173 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040337
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
Liquid feed is susceptible to microbiological growth. Yeasts are said to cause sudden death in swine due to intestinal gas formation. As not all animals given high yeast content feed fall ill, growth and gas formation potential at body temperature were investigated as possible causally required properties. The best identification method for these environmental yeasts should be tested beforehand. Yeasts derived from liquid diets without (LD − S) and liquid diets with maize silage (LD + S) were examined biochemically (ID32C-test) and with MALDI-TOF with direct smear (DS) and an extraction method (EX). Growth temperature and gas-forming potential were measured. With MALDI-EX, most yeast isolates were identified: Candida krusei most often in LD − S, and C. lambica most often in LD + S, significantly more than in LD − S. Larger colonies, 58.75% of all yeast isolates, were formed at 25 °C rather than at 37 °C; 17.5% of all isolates did not grow at 37 °C at all. Most C. krusei isolates formed high gas amounts within 24 h, whereas none of the C. lambica, C. holmii and most other isolates did. The gas pressure formed by yeast isolates varied more than tenfold. Only a minority of the yeasts were able to produce gas at temperatures common in the pig gut. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeasts; liquid swine diets; MALDI-TOF; biochemical identification; growth temperature Ancom Gas Production System; Candida krusei; Candida lambica yeasts; liquid swine diets; MALDI-TOF; biochemical identification; growth temperature Ancom Gas Production System; Candida krusei; Candida lambica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keller, B.; Kuder, H.; Visscher, C.; Siesenop, U.; Kamphues, J. Yeasts in Liquid Swine Diets: Identification Methods, Growth Temperatures and Gas-Formation Potential. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040337

AMA Style

Keller B, Kuder H, Visscher C, Siesenop U, Kamphues J. Yeasts in Liquid Swine Diets: Identification Methods, Growth Temperatures and Gas-Formation Potential. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keller, Birgit, Henrike Kuder, Christian Visscher, Ute Siesenop, and Josef Kamphues. 2020. "Yeasts in Liquid Swine Diets: Identification Methods, Growth Temperatures and Gas-Formation Potential" Journal of Fungi 6, no. 4: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040337

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