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Review

A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa

1
Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
2
Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
3
Indigenous Knowledge Systems Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
4
Centre of Animal Health Studies, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228
Received: 5 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine)

Abstract

:
Globally, the use of ethnoveterinary medicine as remedies for animal health among different ethnic groups justify the need for a systematic exploration to enhance their potential. In addition, the increasing popularity and utilisation of woody plants remain common in traditional medicine, which may be attributed to their inherent benefits. The current review was aimed at analysing ethnoveterinary surveys, biological activities, and secondary metabolites/phytochemical profiles of the woody plants of South Africa. Eligible literature (period: 2000 to 2020) were retrieved from different databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sabinet, and Science Direct. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 ethnoveterinary surveys were eligible and were subjected to further analysis. We identified 104 woody plant species from 44 plant families that are used in the treatment of different diseases in animals, particularly cattle (70%) and goats (20%). The most mentioned (with six citations) woody plants were Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., which were followed by plants with five (Cussonia spicata Thunb., Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) or four (Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd, Cassia abbreviata Oliv., and Strychnos henningsii Gilg) individual mentions. The most dominant families were Fabaceae (19%), Apocynaceae (5.8%), Rubiaceae (5.8%), Anacardiaceae (4.8%), Combretaceae (4.8%), Euphorbiaceae (4.8%), Malvaceae (4.8%), Rhamnaceae (4.8%), and Celastraceae (3.8%). Bark (33%), leaves (29%), and roots (19%) were the plant parts dominantly used to prepare remedies for ethnoveterinary medicine. An estimated 20% of woody plants have been screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity effects. Phytochemical profiles established a rich pool of valuable secondary metabolites (phenolic, flavonoids and condensed tannins) that may be responsible for the exerted biological activities. Overall, the significant portion of woody plants lacking empirical evidence on their biological effects indicates a major knowledge gap that requires more research efforts.

1. Introduction

Globally, many animals, especially cattle, goats, and horses, play diverse role in human life, ranging from being a source of food, income and cultural wealth, touristic attraction, and job creation [1,2,3,4,5,6]. The rearing of animals is well-embedded in the culture of many ethnic groups, which justifies the popularity of indigenous knowledge and practice for managing the health and well-being of animals [5,7,8,9,10,11]. Relative to ethnobiology/ethnobotany, this is currently considered as a distinct field known as ethnoveterinary medicine, a word coined by the American anthropologist Constance McCorkle [12]. It is defined as “the systematic study and application of folk knowledge and beliefs, practices that relate to any aspects of animal health” [13]. Based on increasing evidence [6,14], the field has the capacity to develop into a huge industry in the future. Although animal species and plant species are utilised in ethnoveterinary medicine, the latter is often more popular among many ethnic groups globally [5,11]. Particularly in South Africa, the importance of plants for the management of animal health and well-being cannot be over-emphasized [15].
South Africa has a huge flora diversity and is recognised as a mega-diverse country with three global biodiversity hotspots [16]. The country has an estimated 24,000 species distributed among 368 families, which accounts for approximately 10% of the world’s flora [17]. As a result, South Africans have tapped into the healing powers of these floras since time immemorial, and this knowledge has been retained and has continuously evolved through generations [18]. In some cases, the choice of plants is based on an indigenous experimental process, cultural beliefs, and the biodiversity in a particular area [19,20,21,22].
In Africa, woody plants (trees and shrubs) are an important defining feature of the landscapes [20,23]. They are widely recognised for their diverse uses by humans since ancient times [20,24,25]. Particularly in traditional medicine, woody plant species have essential roles that are easily exemplified, as they represent about 65% of the top 51 most important African medicinal plants [26]. Recent studies from different African countries including South African have reiterated the vital role of woody plants in human and animal healthcare as well as the need for more concerted efforts for their conservation [25,27,28,29,30]. An important attribute of woody plants is the wide range of their organs (leaves, bark, roots, fruits, and flowers) that is available for use as remedies in folk medicine [25,27]. Relative to herbaceous plants with short life cycles, woody plants are often dominant in ecosystems, thereby making them apparent to foraging animals and for utilisation by humans [20,21]. In the current review, we aim to provide an appraisal on the existing ethnoveterinary knowledge, biological activities, and secondary metabolites/phytochemical profiles of woody plants used for managing animal health in South Africa. The review is expected to identify existing research gap(s) in an attempt to explore the potential of woody plants as an alternative remedy for managing animal health.

2. Materials and Methods

The literature search strategy was facilitated using keywords such as woody plants, ethnoveterinary medicine, livestock, and animal health. In addition, phytochemical, antioxidant, phenolic, and antibacterial effect were examples of terms used to generate data for the biological activity and phytochemical aspects of this review. These keywords were used singly and in combination to identify suitable literature from several databases, namely Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Sabinet. We focused on peer-reviewed papers published from 2000 to 2020 on South African woody plants.
Screening of the research outputs from the databases was conducted in two stages. Firstly, the title and abstract of the papers were screened against the inclusion criteria. A publication needed to provide the Latin name for the woody plant to be eligible for inclusion. Articles reporting on ethnoveterinary uses, biological activities, and phytochemical analyses of the woody plants fulfilled the inclusion criteria (e.g., specified time duration, woody species, and South African studies). Review papers and studies not involving South African medicinal woody plants were excluded. Based on the selection criteria, 20 papers were selected and were analysed in order to generate an inventory of woody plants (Table 1). Subsequently, analyses on plant families, mode of preparation, plant parts used to treat animals/livestock diseases, biological activities, and phytochemicals were conducted. Based on the significance of scientific names [31,32], the botanical names were validated via multi-databases, such as PlantZAfrica (http://pza.sanbi.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), and The World Flora Online (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Overview of Eligible Literature and Ethnoveterinary Studies

The eligible studies were conducted in five of the nine provinces in South Africa. These included the Eastern Cape (45%), Limpopo (30%), North West (15%) Mpumalanga (5%), and KwaZulu-Natal (5%) provinces (Table 1). The majority of these aforementioned provinces are regarded as predominantly rural-based, which may explain the continuous dependence on woody plants for veterinary needs. In a recent review of the ethnoveterinary plants of South Africa, McGaw et al., [15] indicated a similar distribution pattern relating to the use of medicinal plants as remedies for animals/livestock in South Africa. In Pakistan, a rich ethnoveterinary knowledge was recorded in communities residing in remote areas with limited access to conventional veterinary services, which often forced the inhabitants to rely on the natural resources within their immediate environment to meet the health needs of their livestock [14].
The data collection methods included the use of questionnaires, interviews, field observations, and Rapid Rural Appraisal (Table 1). Data on ethnoveterinary medicine was collected from diverse participants such as farmers, cattle headers, indigenous knowledge holders, and traditional healers. In terms of number, the number of participants ranged from 15 [43] to 180 [33] while about 30% of the studies had no indication of the sample size involved in the ethnobotanical survey. Given that the primary focus of these surveys was not on woody plants, varying portions (11–100%) of woody species were identified in the recorded plants (Table 1). In the survey in the Eastern Cape by Dold and Cocks [34], approximately 40% of the 53 recorded plants with ethnoveterinary value were woody plant species. A similar trend was evident in other ethnoveterinary surveys in the Eastern Cape [35,41,51] and Limpopo [48] provinces. In North West province, the portion of woody plants ranged from 26% [47,52] to 32% [43]. In an attempt to understand the basis for the selection and utilisation of plants by local communities, several theories and hypotheses exist [53]. In the current situation, the ecological apparency hypothesis likely accounts for the use of woody plants for ethnoveterinary medicine among local communities. Even though South Africa is recognized as being rich in biodiversity and diverse vegetation-types, it remains highly susceptible due to rapid development, habitat loss, and overexploitation [16]. Increasing evidence supported the dynamic nature of the existing vegetation in South Africa, which is associated with the effects of climate change [54]. On this basis, it is often difficult to predict the pattern for the use of woody plants in ethnoveterinary medicine.

3.2. Inventory of Woody Plants with Ethnoveterinary Uses

The high reliance on plants for managing livestock/animals among local communities, especially in developing countries, remains a common trend [14,55]. This popularity has often been attributed to the limited access to convention veterinary drugs and the existence of vast indigenous knowledge for managing livestock in rural communities [47,56,57]. Several studies have revealed that traditional medicines are mostly used because they are regarded as effective and readily available as well as accessible. As often indicated by participants in ethnoveterinary surveys, dependence on traditional medicines is common because western veterinary facilities are inaccessible and are too costly for resource-poor livestock farmers [34,37,45].
Based on the 20 eligible studies from the literature, we generated 104 woody plants with diverse ethnoveterinary uses in South Africa (Table 2). Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex DC and Ziziphus mucronata Willd were the most common plants, with six mentions. Furthermore, Cussonia spicata Thunb., Pterocarpus angolensis DC., and Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso (five citations) and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. and Strychnos henningsii Gilg (four citations) were popular within the 20 analysed studies from the literature. On the other hand, the majority (86%, i.e., 89 plants) of the 104 woody plants had limited (1–2) mentions.
In terms of plant families (Figure 1), most of the identified plants were from the Fabaceae (19%), Apocynaceae (5.8%), Rubiaceae (5.8%), Anacardiaceae (4.8%), Combretaceae (4.8%), Euphorbiaceae (4.8%), Malvaceae (4.8%), Rhamnaceae (4.8%), and Celastraceae (3.8%) families. Even though 44 families were recorded, the majority (estimated 64%) of the families were represented by one woody plant. Based on the analysis of approximately 4576 vascular plants representing 192 families (from the 254 African families) with medicinal value in sub-Saharan African, the dominance of Fabaceae remains evident in African traditional medicine [58]. Furthermore, Fabaceae was the most represented plant family for plants used against cattle diseases in South Africa [59].
Plant parts used to prepare herbal remedies included bark, leaves, fruits, roots, and flowers (Figure 2). However, the most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were bark (33%) followed by leaves (29%) and roots (19%). The dominance of plant parts such as bark and roots may not be sustainable overtime, as their indiscriminate harvesting is often of great conservation concerns for the survival of the plant [26]. Thus, conscious efforts remain essential to ensure good harvesting practices and the long-term sustainability of these valuable woody plants.

3.3. Overview of Animals/Livestock and Diseases

As shown in Figure 3, cattle were the major (61%) animal/livestock treated with the woody plants. In South Africa, the importance of cattle among different cultural groups cannot be overemphasized [1,59]. Van der Merwe et al., [52] documented the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by the Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province. The most important diseases treated were retained placenta, diarrhoea, fractures, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, and pneumonia. A high proportion of the woody plants were used for diarrhoea. Some of the plants documented during the study are used elsewhere in the Eastern Cape to treat different livestock diseases. These include Vachellia karroo, Vachellia tortilis, Cussonia spicata, Rhoicissus tridentata, and Ziziphus mucronata.

3.4. In Vitro Biological Screening of Woody Plants

The increasing incidence of drug resistance in most pathogenic bacteria and parasites that cause economic loss in animals/livestock production calls for the development of new sources for medication [60,61]. Among to the 104 woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in South Africa (Table 2), approximately 20% were screened for their relevant biological activities (e.g., antibacterial, anthelmintic, and antioxidant) and safety (cytotoxicity) level. However, the current review included woody plants that have been screened for biological activities without evidence of their ethnoveterinary use in South Africa. This approach may increase the success rate of bio-prospecting for therapeutic woody plants for ethnoveterinary needs in South Africa [62]. As highlighted by Eloff [63], no statistically significant difference was observed in the antimicrobial activity of plants with ethnobotanical knowledge when compared to randomly selected plants. Hence, the most promising biological activity may not correlate with the most popular plants with existing ethnobotanical knowledge [62,64].

3.4.1. Antibacterial Activity

Even though the antibacterial effects of 39 woody plants were reported (Table 3), approximately 56% of the 39 plants lacked ethnoveterinary applications in the eligible studies that were recorded (Table 1 and Table 2). In terms of the assay-type, approximately 95% of the studies were conducting using the micro-plate dilution method, which is considered as a more robust and reliable assay relative to agar diffusion [63,64]. Based on the recorded antibacterial activity (Table 3), Gram-positive bacteria were more dominant (57% of the 14 organisms) than Gram-negative bacterial strains. Although a diverse range of bacterial strains was tested, the relevance and justification for their selection were unclear in most of the studies. Researchers need to be cognizant of the bacteria type in order to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the anti-bacterial effect of the tested plant extracts [64,65].
On the basis on the number of reports, five woody plants namely Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon, Cussonia spicata Thunb, Indigofera frutescens L.f., Leucosidea sericea Eckl. and Zeyh, and Maesa lanceolata Forssk were the most studied woody plants in terms of their antibacterial effects (Table 3). The most noteworthy (MIC = 20–40 μg/mL) antibacterial effect (exerted against Bacillus anthracis) was demonstrated by acetone extracts of Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms, Morus mesozygia Stapf, and Maesa lanceolata Forssk [66]. Likewise, Salmonella typhimurium was highly susceptible (MIC = 40 μg/mL) to acetone extracts from Crotalaria capensis leaves [67]. Furthermore, the acetone extract from Maesa lanceolata leaves exerted a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect by significantly (MIC = 160–630 μg/mL) inhibiting both Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains [68]. Similar broad-spectrum antibacterial activity was demonstrated by the acetone leaf extracts of Indigofera frutescens L.f. (MIC = 80–310 μg/mL) and Leucosidea sericea (MIC = 20–80 μg/mL), as indicated by different authors [67,68,69].
Leaves/aerial parts (77%) and bark (17%) were the most common parts of the woody plants that were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Remarkable differences in the antibacterial effect of woody plant parts were evident in Leucosidea sericea [69], Schotia brachypetala Sond, Searsia lancea (L.f.) F.A.Barkley (Rhus lanceas), and Ziziphus mucronata Willd [70]. Particularly in Schotia brachypetala and Ziziphus mucronata, the leaf extracts had remarkable antibacterial effects against the tested bacterial strains while the bark extracts were ineffective. Furthermore, the type of solvent used for extracting the plant parts strongly influenced the resultant antibacterial response (Table 3). Despite the popularity of water as the most commonly used solvent in traditional medicine, water extracts often exhibit weaker antibacterial effects relative to many organic solvents [63].

3.4.2. Anthelmintic Activity

As highlighted by Aremu et al., [74], evaluating anthelmintic potential is often conducted using (i) developmental and behavioural assays (DBA) and (ii) colorimetric assays (CA). Following treatment and incubation with plant extracts, the assays measure the survival and/or reproductive potential (DBA) or metabolic response using the appropriate marker (CA). A total of 48 woody plants have been tested for their anthelmintic activity, which was mainly (90%) assessed using DBA (Table 4). However, only 42% of these woody plants had existing indigenous knowledge related to the management of animal health among local communities in South Africa. Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon, Leucosidea sericea, and Sclerocarya birrea were identified as the most commonly evaluated woody plants in terms of their anthelmintic effect. Using pre-defined anthelmintic effect categories [69], the organic solvent extracts of Leucosidea sericea had high (minimum lethal concentration, MLC = 0.26–0.52 mg/mL) anthelmintic activity against Caenorhabditis elegans [69]. Likewise, Fouche et al., [75] demonstrated that Maerua angolensis stem extract exerted 65% inhibition, which was noteworthy among all of the evaluated woody plants. Furthermore, extracts from Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maesa lanceolate, and Leucosidea sericea using an egg hatch assay (e.g., of DBA) exhibited significant anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus and killed 100% of the parasites when administered at the dosages of 12.50, 6.25, and 3.13 mg/mL [76]. Fouche et al., [75] investigated the acetone extracts of various woody plants for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus, and the stem of Maerua angolensis had a mean inhibition rate of 65%, which was noteworthy compared to the other plants tested and included in the review.
Caenorhabditis elegans (63%), Haemonchus contortus (35%), and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (2%) have been the widely used organisms for assessing the anthelmintic effects of woody species (Table 4). In recent times, the use of free-living nematodes, particularly, have remained common due to their inherent benefits [74,77,78]. Caenorhabditis elegans is regarded as the best representative of a large phylum that contains several parasites [78]. However, the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a test organism has resulted in limited success in terms of the discovery of valuable new leads [62,77,79]. Hence, Caenorhabditis elegans should only serve as a screening tool for the rapid identification of promising plant extracts that will be further subjected to more appropriate test model(s).
The type of solvents used for plant extraction has a critical influence on the anthelmintic effect of woody plants (Table 4). For instance, the ethyl acetate extract of Combretum apiculatum exhibited strong lethality, killing 70–80% of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) while the water extract had a 10–20% killing rate at 1 mg/mL [80]. Furthermore, Searsia lancea hexane extract had higher (50%) in vitro anthelmintic activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the methanol and water extracts did [70]. The in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of several woody plants against Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that ethanol extracts possessed higher anthelmintic activity than water extracts [71].
Contrary to the majority of studies focusing on an single test organism (Table 4), Shai et al., [81] evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Curtisia dentata against parasitic (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus) and the free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all of the nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 μg/mL. This finding clearly highlights the anthelmintic potential of Curtisia dentata, which requires further experiments, especially in terms of its in vivo response.

3.4.3. Antioxidant Activity

Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and often possess the ability to reverse or repair the damage caused by free radicals in animal cells [82]. Recently, there has been increasing interest in determining the antioxidant potential of plants used for medicinal purposes [83]. It is generally known that damages caused by reactive oxygen species are often a contributing factor to many diseases [84]. As shown in Table 5, the antioxidant potential of the 24 woody plants have mainly been evaluated via in vitro assays including ABTS—2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH—1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, and FRAP -ferric reducing antioxidant power. Relative to the inventory in Table 2, only six woody plants show antioxidant activity.
Given that these bio-analytical assays differ in terms of reaction mechanisms, oxidant, and target species as well as reaction conditions [82], it is often beneficial to evaluate plant extracts in multi-assays. Based on the DPPH assay, the most promising (EC50 < 5 μg/mL) antioxidant activity was exerted by woody plants such as Alsophila dregei, Apodytes dimidiata, Brachylaena discolor, Burkea africana, Clausena anisata, Combretanum zeyheri, Millettia grandis, Strychnos mitis, Volkameria glabra, and Zanthoxylum capense. Similar noteworthy antixodant effects was observed in the ABTS assay for Burkea africana and Combretum zeyheri [85]. However, moderate antioxidant activity ranging from 68–579 µg/mL was demonstrated among the eight evaluated woody plants. These aforementioned antioxidant tests were in vitro-based, thereby limiting the clinical relevance of the current findings. Hence, it will be pertinent to establish the in vivo antioxidant activity of woody plants with noteworthy response.

3.4.4. Cytotoxicity

The safety of medicinal plants remains essential toward the drive to incorporate these valuable natural resources as part of healthcare for animals. Evidence of the cytotoxicity levels for 39 woody plants were recorded in the current review (Table 6). Approximately 51% of these woody plants have explicit applications in South African ethnoveterinary medicine (Table 2). Particularly, the safety of different organs from three plants namely Calpurnia aurea, Maesa lanceolata, and Sclerocarya birrea were assessed in more than one study [66,70,75,76].
According to the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI), the criteria for the cytotoxicity of crude extracts, extracts with an LC50 value that is less than 20 µg/mL are classified as cytotoxic. On this basis, Apodytes dimidiate, Brachylaena discolour, Calpurnia aurea, Elaeodendron croceum, Maesa lanceolata, and Strychnos mitis exerted varying degrees of cytotoxicity (LC50 = 3.32–19.9 μg/mL), and caution needs to be taken during their utilisation for ethnoveterinary medicine [66,67,76]. Furthermore, McGaw et al., [70] assessed the cytotoxicity activity of the hexane, methanol, and water extracts of the selected woody plants against the larvae of Artemia salina (brine shrimp). From the results, the water extracts from Searsia lancea and Ziziphus mucronata leaves displayed strong lethality to the tested organism. On the other hand, moderate cytotoxicity was demonstrated by the acetone and water extracts of Vachellia nilotica bark against Vero monkey cell assays, and these extracts exhibited toxic effects on the cells with LC50 = 33.2 μg/mL and LC50 = 27.8 μg/mL, respectively. This was closely-followed by the acetone extracts from Tetradenia riparia, leaf with LC50 = 51.3 μg/mL [86].

3.5. Phytochemical Analysis of Plants Used for Ethnoveterinary Purposes

Phytochemical screening is important when investigating medicinal plants given that bioactive compounds can be responsible for their resultant biological activities [87,88]. In particular, the phenolic compounds in plants serve as defense mechanisms against pathogens and may be explored for therapeutic purposes [89]. The 20 woody plants recorded exhibit a diverse range of phytochemicals (Table 7), an indication of their potential benefits as ethnoveterinary medicine. For instance, 12 selected woody plant extracts had a rich source of phenols that ranged from 100 to 428 mg GAE/g, and Lippia javanica had the highest phenolic content while Englerophytum magaliesmontanum had the lowest content [85]. In addition, the flavonoid content varied from 6–159 mg QE/g, as contained in Ehretia rigida (lowest) and Leucaena leucocephala (highest). Olaokun et al., [90] quantified the total phenolic and flavonoid contents in Curtisia dentata and Pittosporum viridiflorum. The results indicated that Curtisia dentata extract yielded the higher phenolics (125.12 mg/g GAE) and flavonoids (27.69 mg/g GAE) compared to the extract from Pittosporum viridiflorum.
In recent times, increasing evidence from several studies on polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants support their biological and pharmaceutical importance in maintaining animal health and overall productivity [91]. For example, betulinic acid and lupeol were successfully isolated from Curtisia dentata [81], which is one of the woody plants recorded in our inventory (Table 2). Subsequently, both compounds demonstrated a moderate degree of an anthelmintic effect (200 and 1 000 μg/mL) against parasitic nematodes. However, the relatively higher concentration required for the compounds to be effective limits their clinical relevance as an anthelmintic for livestock.

4. Conclusions

The current review entailed an overview of the role and contributions of woody plants in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa. We highlighted the richness of South Africa’s flora as a medicinal resource and the effectiveness of woody plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine. Terminalia sericea and Ziziphus mucronata were the most commonly utilised woody plants based on existing indigenous knowledge. The extensive utilisation of some plant parts (e.g., bark and roots) remain a major concern due to the potential detrimental effects of the indiscriminate harvesting of such parts may have on the survival and sustainability of the woody plants. The majority (80%) of woody plants with indigenous knowledge related to their applications in the management of animal health remain poorly evaluated in terms of their biological efficacy and phytochemical composition. Nevertheless, some of the woody plants (e.g., Alsophila dregei, Cussonia spicata, Indigofera frutescens, Leucosidea sericea, and Maesa lanceolata) have demonstrated promising biological activities, mainly in antibacterial and anthelminthic assays. Given the pre-dominantly in vitro based assays currently being utilised, there is an urgent need to evaluate woody plants with promising biological effect in appropriate in vivo models. The test organisms need to have direct relevance to prevailing health challenges facing livestock in rural areas where the use of woody plants have been widely documented. In terms of the phytochemical profiles, South African woody plants have a rich pool of chemicals with potential therapeutic effects.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, K.M.S. and A.O.A.; formal analysis, K.M.S., J.A.A. and A.O.A.; investigation, K.M.S., J.A.A. and A.O.A.; writing—original draft preparation K.M.S., J.A.A. and A.O.A.; writing—review and editing, J.A.A., M.S., R.V.N. and A.O.A.; supervision, M.S., R.V.N., and A.O.A.; project administration, A.O.A.; funding acquisition, A.O.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research was wholly funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF, Indigenous Knowledge Systems Research Grant, UID: 118585) Pretoria, South Africa. We thank North-West University for additional financial support for the project. AOA appreciates the financial support from North-West University UCDG: Staff Development—Advancement of Research Profiles: Mobility Grant (NW 1EU0130) for outgoing academic visits. The Article Processing Charge (APC) was paid by the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, South Africa. We appreciate the institutional support from North-West University, South Africa.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

All data are included as part of the manuscript.

Acknowledgments

We appreciate institutional support from North-West University.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The National Research Foundation had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.

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Figure 1. Frequency of the 44 families of woody plants used in South African ethnoveterinary medicine. # = number of mention.
Figure 1. Frequency of the 44 families of woody plants used in South African ethnoveterinary medicine. # = number of mention.
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Figure 2. Distribution of different parts of woody plants used in the preparation of ethnoveterinary remedies in South Africa. Others denote parts such as seeds, fruits, flowers, and twigs. (n = 184).
Figure 2. Distribution of different parts of woody plants used in the preparation of ethnoveterinary remedies in South Africa. Others denote parts such as seeds, fruits, flowers, and twigs. (n = 184).
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Figure 3. Distribution of animals identified in ethnoveterinary surveys for woody plants in South Africa. (n = 189).
Figure 3. Distribution of animals identified in ethnoveterinary surveys for woody plants in South Africa. (n = 189).
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Table 1. An overview of ethnoveterinary surveys with evidence on the use of woody plants in South Africa from 2000–2020.
Table 1. An overview of ethnoveterinary surveys with evidence on the use of woody plants in South Africa from 2000–2020.
ReferenceProvinceDocumented PlantsDocumented Woody PlantsMethod of Survey/InterviewNumber of Participants
Number of PlantsNumber of FamiliesNumber of PlantsNumber of Families
Chitura et al., [33]Limpopo111074Structured questionnaire 180
Dold and Cocks [34]Eastern Cape53422118Questionnaire and field interviewNot specified
Kambizi [35]Eastern Cape221987Semi-structured interviewNot specified
Khunoana et al., [36]Mpumalanga11964Semi-structured interview50
Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]Limpopo 34222113Focus group discussion37
Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]Limpopo 191296Individual and group interviewNot specified
Magwede et al., [39]Limpopo2714159Open-ended questions and semi-structured questionnaire42
Mahlo [40]Limpopo 5454Not specifiedNot specified
Maphosa and Masika [41]Eastern Cape2820129Structured questionnaire and general conversation30
Mkwanazi et al., [42]KwaZulu-Natal5411Structured questionnaireNot specified
Moichwanetse et al., [43]North West251885Face-to-face, semi-structured interview15
Moyo and Masika [44]Eastern Cape2211Structured questionnaire59
Mthi et al., [45]Eastern Cape6643Semi-structured questionnaire, observations and guided field trip48
Mwale and Masika [46]Eastern Cape9711Structured questionnaire54
Ndou [47]North West 311787Semi structured face-to-face interview21
Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]Limpopo2010148Semi-structured interviewNot specified
Rwodzi [49]Eastern Cape10822Questionnaire 60
Sanhokwe et al., [50]Eastern Cape9833Structured questionnaire53
Soyelu and Masika [51]Eastern Cape131176Structured questionnaire53
Van der Merwe et al., [52]North West45241912Detailed interview28
Table 2. Inventory of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes among communities in South Africa. Botanical names were validated using PlantZAfrica (http://pza.sanbi.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), and The World Flora Online (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)). Syn = synonym; ns = not specified.
Table 2. Inventory of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes among communities in South Africa. Botanical names were validated using PlantZAfrica (http://pza.sanbi.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)), and The World Flora Online (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/ (accessed on 29 September 2021)). Syn = synonym; ns = not specified.
Plant SpeciesFamilyCommon NameMethod of Preparation and Administration Plant Part UsedAnimal TreatedDisease/Health ConditionReference
Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) CoddApocynaceaeBushman’s PoisonLeaves are boiled for 10 min, strained, and left to stand overnight LeavesSheep, goatsHeartwater Dold and Cocks [34]
Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) CoddApocynaceaeBushman’s PoisonDecoctionLeavesGoats Gastrointestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) CoddApocynaceaeBushman’s PoisonLeaves crushed with water and administered orallyLeavesCattleParatyphoid (Goso)Mthi et al., [45]
Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) CoddApocynaceaeBushman’s PoisonDecoction; ground leaves are boiled, cooled, and administered by drenching the animals. Dose with 1 L bottle for adults and a 300 mL bottle for kidsLeavesGoatsHelminths, ticksSanhokwe et al., [50]
Afrocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) C.N.Page PodocarpaceaeOuteniqua yellowwoodDecoctionLeavesDogs Distemper Dold and Cocks [34]
Albizia sp. FabaceaeXisitanaRoot skin is infused in water and is left overnightRoots CattleSwollen stomach Khunoana et al., [36]
Azima tetracantha Lam.SalvadoraceaeBeehangerDried and ground root is bottled in cold water RootCattleDystocia Dold and Cocks [34]
Balanites maughamii
Sprague
ZygophyllaceaeTorchwoodDecoctionLeaves Cattle DiarrhoeaMahlo [40]
Balanites maughamii
Sprague
ZygophyllaceaeTorchwoodGround leaves are mixed with cold water LeavesCattleDiarrhoea Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Bauhinia thonningii Schum. (Syn: Piliostigma
thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh.)
FabaceaeCamel’s foot DecoctionLeaves Cattle DiarrhoeaMahlo [40]
Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) HarmsFabaceaeTree wisteriaPounded roots are immersed in waterRootsCattleRetained placenta Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Brachylaena ilicifolia (Lam.) E. Phillips & Schweick.AsteraceaeBitterblaarLeaves are mixed with leaves of Leucas capensis (Benth.) Engl. and sap of Aloe ferox Mill and boiled LeavesLambsDiarrhoeaDold and Cocks [34]
Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.WoodRubiaceaeTransvaal teakMacerationBark Cattle General intestinal diseases and retained placentaMahlo [40]
Burchellia bubaline (L.f.) SimsRubiaceaeWild pomegranatensLeavesnsHeartwater Kambizi [35]
Cadaba aphylla (Thunb.) WildCapparaceaeleafless cadaba, leafless wormbush, black stormRoot decoction: Combined with roots of Ziziphus zeyheriana, Senna italica, and Dicoma galpinii RootnsBlood cleansing and pains (sores, fractures)Ndou [47]
Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth.FabaceaeCommon calpurnia InfusionLeavesCattle Maggot-infested woundsSoyelu and Masika [51]
Capparis sepiaria L. CapparaceaeCape CapersInfusionRootsGoatsGastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex BrenanApocynaceaeForest num-numBulb is ground and mixed with water Roots, bulbCattleCalving difficulties Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Cassia abbreviata Oliv.FabaceaeSjambok podBark infusionBarkCattleRetained placentaChitura et al., [33]
Cassia abbreviata Oliv.Fabaceae Sjambok podGround bark is soaked in water overnight or boiled BarknsWorm infestation Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Cassia abbreviata Oliv.FabaceaeSjambok podGround bark is mixed with waterBark Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Cassia abbreviata Oliv.FabaceaeSjambok podBark infusion or decoctionBark, root barkCattleRedwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Cassine aethiopica Thunb. (Syn: Mystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes.)CelastraceaeKooboo-berryBark is grated and boiled for 20 min BarkCattle HeartwaterDold and Cocks [34]
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.ApiaceaeVarkoortjieDecoctionBarkGoatsHelminths Sanhokwe et al., [50]
Cephalanthus natalensis Oliv.RubiaceaeStrawberry bushInfusion LeavesCattleEye problem Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Cissampelos capensis L.f.MenispermaceaeDavidjiesnsRootsnsSkin problems, wounds Kambizi [35]
Clutia pulchella L. PeraceaeLightning bushDecoctionRoots CattleGallKhunoana et al., [36]
Coddia rudis (E.Mey. ex. Harv.) Verdc.RubiaceaeSmall bone applensLeavesLeaves Skin problems (eliminates ticks) Kambizi [35]
Combretum collinum FresenCombretaceaeBicoloured bushwillownsBarkCattle ConstipationChitura et al., [33]
Combretum microphyllum Klotzsch.CombretaceaeFlame creeperInfusion or decoction RootsCattleRedwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Combretum molle R.Br ex G.DonCombretaceaeVelvet bushwillowInfusionLeaves Cattle Gut conditions—diarrhoea. Worm infestation. Breeding problems, difficult calvingLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Combretum paniculatum Vent.CombretaceaeBurning bushDecoction Root barkCattleFor fertility problems Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Croton gratissimus Burch. (Syn: Croton gratissimus Burch. var gratissimus)Euphorbiaceaelavender croton, lavender fever berryDried leaves are crushed and mixed with supplement feedLeavesnsFertility enhancement in livestockNdou [47]
Croton gratissimus Burch. (Syn: Croton gratissimus Burch. var gratissimus)EuphorbiaceaeLavender fever berrynsLeavesCattle Pneumonia Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Curtisia dentata (Brum. f.) C.A.Smith CurtisiaceaeAssegaiBark, together with the bark of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez, is boiled for 30 min BarkCattleHeartwater Dold and Cocks [34]
Cussonia spicata Thunb.AraliaceaeCabbage-treeMixed with leaves of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S.Green to produce concoction or decoctionLeavesCattleBloody urine after calving (endometritus and/or vaginitis) Dold and Cocks [34]
Cussonia spicata Thunb.AraliaceaeCabbage-treensBarknsHeartwater Kambizi [35]
Cussonia spicata Thunb.AraliaceaeCabbage-treeInfusionBarkGoatsGastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Cussonia spicata Thunb.AraliaceaeCabbage-treeGround bark is soaked overnight and dose at 300 mL BarkGoatsHelmenthis Sanhokwe et al., [50]
Cussonia spicata Thunb.AraliaceaeCabbage-treensBarkCattle Treat retained afterbirth. Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Dalbergia obovata E.Mey.FabaceaeClimbing flat beanLeaves and bark crushed and mixed with waterLeaves, barkCattleParatyphoid (Goso)Mthi et al., [45]
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.FabaceaeSicklebush Dried fruit is made into powder FruitSheep, goatsWoundsChitura et al., [33]
Diospyros lycioides Desf. (Syn: Diospyros lycioides Desf. subsp. lyciodes)EbenaceaeBluebush, Karoo blue bush Ground leaves are mixed with water and apply on the affected area LeavesCattleTicks Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Diospyros lycioides Desf. (Syn: Diospyros lycioides Desf. subsp. lyciodes)EbenaceaeBluebush, Karoo blue bushLeaves are crushed and mixed with waterLeaves Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC.EbeneceaeAfrican ebonyGround bark is mixed with hippopotamus fat; dosed and also rubbed into vagina BarknsFor milk production Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC.EbeneceaeAfrican ebonyGround roots are mixed with warm but not boiling water to yield an infusion RootsCattleRedwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch.MalvaceaeWild pearGround leaves/flowers are mixed with chicken feed Leaves, flowersChickenNewcastle disease Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch.MalvaceaeWild pearDecoctionLeaves Cattle DiarrhoeaMahlo [40]
Ehretia rigida (Thunb.) DruceBoraginaceaePuzzle bushDecoctionRootsCattle Eating problemsLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Ehretia rigida (Thunb.) DruceBoraginaceaePuzzle bushnsRootsCattleFractures Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Elaeodendron transvaalense (Burtt Davy) R.H.ArcherCelastraceaeBushveld saffronGround fruits are mixed with water Fruit Cattle Worms Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Elaeodendron transvaalense (Burtt Davy) R.H.Archer CelastraceaeSpike-ThornnsBarkCattleDiarrhoea Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Elephantorrhiza burkei Benth.FabaceaeElephant-rootGround bulb (or bark) is mixed with water Bark, rootsCattleDiarrhoea Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.PennSapotaceaeTransvaal milkplumnsRootsCattle Fertility enhancement Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Erythrina caffra Thunb.FabaceaeCoast coral treensBarknsHeartwater Kambizi [35]
Erythrina lysistemon Hutch.FabaceaeCommon coral treeFresh bark is crushed into pulp and juice is appliedBarkCattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Euphorbia cupularis Boiss.EuphorbiaceaeCrying treeMilky latex is applied on third eyelid and on the skin of the limping leg Milky latexnsEye infection and blackquarter Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns Euphorbiaceae African milk bushMilky sap applied directly on the area between the eye and earStem CattleEye problemKhunoana et al., [36]
Ficus sp.MoraceaensnsBarknsWounds Kambizi [35]
Garcinia livingstonei T.
Anderson
ClusiaceaeAfrican mangosteenJuice from fresh leaves is squeezed LeavesCattleEye problems Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Grewia damine Gaertn. (Syn: Grewia bicolor Juss.)MalvaceaeWhite raisinStem branches are cut into sticks used as lashes SticksCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Grewia flava DC.MalvaceaeBrandybush, wild currantRoot decoction combined with root of Ziziphus zeyheriana and given orallyrootcattleDiarrhoeaNdou [47]
Grewia flava DC.MalvaceaeBrandybush, wild currantnsRootsCattle Fertility enhancement Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Grewia occidentalis L.MalvaceaeCrossberryInfusion is prepared with the leaves of Olea europaea subsp. africana and Zanthoxylum capense and sap of Aloe feroxLeavesnsGallsicknessDold and Cocks [34]
Grewia occidentalis L.MalvaceaeCrossberryDecoction Bark Goats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Grewia occidentalis L.MalvaceaeCrossberryInfusionLeaves twigsCattleWoundsSoyelu and Masika [51]
Gymnosporia sp.CelastraceaeXihlangwaRoot skin infused in water and left overnightRoots CattleBlack quarter and diarrhoeaKhunoana et al., [36]
Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh.AnacardiaceaeWild plumnsBarknsSkin problems Kambizi [35]
Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh.AnacardiaceaeWild plumDecoction BarkGoats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl.ApiaceaeParsley treeGround root powder is mixed with cold or warm water to yield an infusion RootCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk.SapindaceaeBastard horsewoodBark is mixed with the bark of Protorhus longifolia and is grated and boiled for 10 min BarkCattleHeartwater and diarrhoeaDold and Cocks [34]
Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk.SapindaceaeBastard horsewoodInfusionLeavesCattleWounds Soyelu and Masika [51]
Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.DonApocynaceaeConessiCrushed roots are mixed with hot water to yield an infusion or are cooked to produce a decoctionRootCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Hyperacanthus amoenus (Sims) BridsonRubiaceaeThorny gardeniaMacerationBark Cattle Relieving pain, loss of appetite, and general ailmentsMahlo [40]
Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaePhysic nutCrushed (1–2) seeds are mixed with water for drenching SeedsCattle, goatsConstipation Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaePhysic nutSliced root is cooked to produce a decoction Root, tuberCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Maerua angolensis DC.CapparaceaeBead-beanGround leaves are mixed with water. Fresh leaves are squeezed to extract juiceLeavesCattle Eating disorder, drought tonic, eye problems, woundsLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Maytenus peduncularis (Sond.) Loes.CelastraceaeBlackwoodRoot-bark is made into a pasteRoot-barkCattle FracturesChitura et al., [33]
Maytenus peduncularis (Sond.) Loes.CelastraceaeBlackwoodnsLeavesGoatsTicksMkwanazi et al., [42]
Millettia grandis (E.Mey) SkeelsFabaceaeUmzimbeetSoak the leaves in cold waterLeavesChicken Internal parasitesMwale and Masika [46]
Noltea africana (L.)
Rchb. f.
RhamnaceaeSoap bushGround into powderRootsGoatsWomb cleansing; fertility Rwodzi [49]
Ochna holstii Engl.OchnaceaeCommon forest ochnaLeaves and branches boiled for 2 h, 1 litre is given once daily for 3 days LeavesGoats, sheep, cattleWounds Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Ochna holstii Engl.OchnaceaeCommon forest ochnaLeaves are ground and boiledLeaves, twigs, barkCattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Ocotea bullata (Burch.) E. Meyer in DregeLauraceaeStinkwoodDecoctionBarkGoatsGastrointestinal parasitesMaphosa and Masika [41]
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif. (Syn: Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S.Green)OleaceaeWild oliveBark infusion. Leaves together with Cussonia spicata root. Mixture of Zanthoxylum capense leaves, Grewia occidentalis leaves, and Aloe ferox sapBark, leavesGoats, cattle Diarrhoea in goats. Bloody urine after calving (endomitritis and vaginitis in cattle). Treating gallsickness in cattleDold and Cocks [34]
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif. (Syn: Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S.Green)OleaceaeWild oliveCrushed bark is soaked in warm waterBarkCattleBlack quarter (Ciko)Mthi et al., [45]
Osyris lanceolata Hoscht. & SteudSantalaceae Rock tannin-bushMacerationBulb CattleRetained placenta, alleviation of pain and internal bleedingMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Ozoroa paniculosa (Sond.) R.Fern. & A.Fern. (Syn: Ozoroa paniculosa (Sond.) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. paniculosa)AnacardiaceaeCommon resin treensBark, root barkCattle Diarrhoea, redwater, sweating sickness Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Peltophorum africanum Sond.FabaceaeWeeping wattleBark is ground into powderBark Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Peltophorum africanum Sond.FabaceaeWeeping wattlePoultice Leaves and bulbCattleRetained placenta, diarrhoea, and removal of blood clots from the skinMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Peltophorum africanum Sond.FabaceaeWeeping wattlensBark, root barkCattle Tonic, diarrhoea Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Philenoptera violacea (Klotzsch) Schrire FabaceaeApple-leafBark is ground and infused in water overnightBark CattleGall, diarrhoea, and general ailmentsKhunoana et al., [36]
Philenoptera violacea (Klotzsch) SchrireFabaceaeApple-leafBark is boiled in waterBark Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Philenoptera violacea (Klotzsch) SchrireFabaceaeApple-leafBark is cooked or soaked in cold water to produce a red decoction/infusion Stem and root-barkCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Phoenix reclinata Jacq.ArecaceaWild date palmRoots are mixed with Arctotis arctotoides leaves and boiled, warm liquid is used RootsSheep, goatsFootrot Dold and Cocks [34]
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims PittosporaceaeCheesewoodInfusionBarkGoats Gastrointestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Pittosporum viridiflorum SimsPittosporaceaeCheesewoodDecoctionRootsChicken Wounds Soyelu and Masika [51]
Pouzolzia mixta Solms Urticaceae Soap-nettlePoulticeRoots CattleRetained placenta and uterus cleansingMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Protorhus longifolia (Bernh.) Engl.AnacardiaceaeRed beechMixed with bark of Hippobromus pauciflorus and boiled for 20 min BarkCattle Heartwater and diarrhoea Dold and Cocks [34]
Prunus persica (L.) BatschRosaceaePeach treeDecoctionLeaves Lamb, goatsDiarrhoea Dold and Cocks [34]
Prunus persica (L.) BatschRosaceaePeach treeGround to pulp and mixed with hot paper and liquidLeaves nsWounds Magwede et al., [39]
Prunus persica (L.) BatschRosaceaePeach treeInfusionLeavesCattle Maggot-infested woundsSoyelu and Masika [51]
Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifoloia PaxPhyllanthaceaeKudu berryGround bark is mixed with water BarkCattle Drought tonic Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk.PtaeroxylaceaeSneezewoodDecoctionLeavesGoats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk.PtaeroxylaceaeSneezewoodCrushed and soaked in cold water overnight (infusion)Bark Cattle Ticks Moyo and Masika [44]
Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk.PtaeroxylaceaeSneezewoodCrush bark is mixed with used oil to form paste. Leaf decoctionBark, leavesCattleWounds and myiasis Soyelu and Masika [51]
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. FabaceaePaddle-woodStem bark infusion BarkCattleConstipation Chitura et al., [33]
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. FabaceaePaddle-woodSoak the bark in water BarkCattle Mali and not eating Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. FabaceaePaddle-woodChopped bark is soaked in cold water after the water has changed to reddish boil for 30–60 min BarknsGeneral illness, unthriftiness, gallsickness, intestinal worms, blackquarter Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. FabaceaePaddle-woodBark is ground to pulpBark Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. Fabaceae Bark is cooked or imbibed in cold water to produce a red decoction/infusion Bark, root barkCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez (Syn: Myrsine melanophloeos (L.) R.Br. ex Sweet)PrimulaceaeCape BeechMixed with bark of Curtisia dentata and boiled for 30 min BarkCattle HeartwaterDold and Cocks [34]
Rauvolfia caffra Sond.ApocynaceaeQuinine treeApplied as powder on woundsBark Cattle WoundsMagwede et al., [39]
Rhamnus prinoides L’Hér.RhamnaceaeDogwoodInfusionRoots GoatsTwin or triplets productionRwodzi [49]
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.VitaceaeNorthern bushman’s grapeTuber is boiled in water for 15 min TubersGoats, sheepDiarrhoea Dold and Cocks [34]
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.VitaceaeNorthern bushman’s grapeLeaves are boiled Leaves Cattle Lumpy skin disease Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.VitaceaeNorthern bushman’s grapensTubersCattle Heartwater, redwater internal parasites Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Rothmannia capensis ThunbRubiaceaeWild gardeniaDecoctionRootsCattle Eating problem Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Rothmannia capensis ThunbRubiaceaeWild gardeniaFresh fruits are grounded to pulpFruit nsWounds Magwede et al., [39]
Schotia brachypetala Sond.FabaceaeAfrican walnutGround bark is boiled in waterBark CattleFoot and mouth diseases, black quarter, and general ailmentsKhunoana et al., [36]
Schotia brachypetala Sond.FabaceaeAfrican walnutBark, preferably from the root, is cooked to make a decoction Bark, root barkCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Schotia latifolia Jacq.FabaceaeBush BoerbeanDecoction Bark Goats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst.AnacardiaceaeMarulaBark is soaked in cold water to yield an infusion or is cooked to produce a decoction BarkCattle RedwaterRamovha and Van Wyk [48]
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst.AnacardiaceaeMarulansBarkCattle Diarrhoea and fractures Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Searsia lancea (L.f.) F.A.Barkley (Syn: Rhus lancea L.f.)AnacardiaceaeKareensRootsCattle Diarrhoea gallsickness Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Secamone filiformis (L.f) J.H.RossApocynaceaensStem is ground and mixed with cold water StemCattle Diarrhoea Dold and Cocks [34]
Senna petersiana (Bolle) LockFabaceaeMonkey podLeaves are soaked LeavesGoats General illnesses Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Senna petersiana (Bolle) LockFabaceaeMonkey podGround root powder is mixed with warm water to yield an infusion RootCattle Redwater Ramovha and Van Wyk [48]
Sideroxylon inerme L.SapotaceaeWhite milkwoodBark is crushed and boiled for 20 min BarkCattle Redwater Dold and Cocks [34]
Solanum aculeastrum DunalSolanaceaeGoat bitter-appleFresh fruits are ground to pulpFruitnsWounds Magwede et al., [39]
Spirostachys africana Sond.EuphorbiaceaeTambotiBark is ground to pulpBark Cattle Wounds Magwede et al., [39]
Spirostachys africana Sond.EuphorbiaceaeTambotinsWoodCattle Sweating sickness Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Strychnos decussata (Pappe) Gilg.LoganiaceaeCape teakBark is crushed and soaked in water for 20 min, after which the infusion is strained BarkCattle Roundworms Dold and Cocks [34]
Strychnos henningsii GilgLoganiaceaeRed bitter berryResinnsCattle, sheep, goatsArthritisChitura et al., [33]
Strychnos henningsii GilgLoganiaceaeRed bitter berryBark is soaked for 20 min and strained BarkCattle Heartwater and diarrhoea Dold and Cocks [34]
Strychnos henningsii GilgLoganiaceaeRed bitter berryDecoctionBarkGoats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Strychnos henningsii GilgLoganiaceaeRed bitter berrynsBarkCattleParatyphoid (Goso)Mthi et al., [45]
Tabernaemontana elegans StapfApocynaceaeToad treeCrushed or in tact roots are soaked in water to yield an infusion or are cooked to produce a decoction RootsCattle RedwaterRamovha and Van Wyk [48]
Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.AsteraceaeCamphor bushMacerationLeaves CattleRetained placenta and pain alleviationMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.AsteraceaeCamphor bushLeaf infusion, oral route: The leaves of the plant are put in drinking waterLeavesnsTo prevent coldNdou [47]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafGround roots are mixed with water to apply on the ticks and wounds. Roots are boiled and given to the animalRootsCattle Ticks and wounds, diarrhoeaLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafGround leaves are mixed with water and applied on the wound and are covered with cattle dung LeavesCattle WoundsLuseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafRoots are ground to pulp and mixed with waterRootsCattle Wounds and ticksMagwede et al., [39]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafPoulticeLeaves CattleRetained placenta and uterus cleansingMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafRoot-bark is soaked in cold water to yield an infusion, or dried bark is ground to a powder and is mixed with water Roots, barkCattle RedwaterRamovha and Van Wyk [48]
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.CombretaceaeSilver cluster-leafnsRoots Cattle Diarrhoea Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Trema orientalis (L.) BlumeCannabaceaePigeonwood Ground leaves are mixed with water LeavesCattle, goats, sheepEye problems and gallsickness Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Triumfetta sonderi Ficalho & HiernMalvaceaeSonder’s truimfettansRoot-barkCattle Retained placenta Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Turraea obtusifolia Hochst.MeliaceaeSmall honeysuckle treeCrushed leaves are applied directly on the wounds LeavesGoats, sheep, cattleWounds Luseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso (Syn: Acacia karroo)FabaceaeSweet thornBark is chopped into small pieces and boiledBarkGoats, sheepDiarrhoea and intestinal parasitesDold and Cocks [34]
Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso (Syn: Acacia karroo)FabaceaeSweet thornMaceration Bulb CattleRetained placenta and bacterial infectionsMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso (Syn: Acacia karroo)FabaceaeSweet thornLeaves are crushed and mixed with MadubulaLeavesCattle Wounds and myiasisSoyelu and Masika [51]
Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso (Syn: Acacia karroo) FabaceaeSweet thornnsBarkCattleFractures and diarrhoeaVan der Merwe et al., [52]
Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Gallaso (Syn: Acacia karroo)FabaceaeSweet thornFor external coaptation of simple bone fractures (thobega) Thorn, barknsFracture repair and splints for fracture repairNdou [47]
Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi (Syn: Acacia tortilis) FabaceaeUmbrella thornnsBranch tipsCattleDiarrhoea Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Volkameria glabra (E.Mey.) Mabb. & Y.W.Yuan (Syn: Clerodendrum capense D.Don ex Steud.) LamiaceaeTinderwoodnsLeavesnsWorms Kambizi [35]
Withania somnifera (L.) DunalSolanaceaewinter cherryTuber infusion combined with roots of Solanum lichtensteinii and Bulbine abyssinica, oral routeTubersnsInternal soresNdou [47]
Xanthocercis zambesiaca (Baker) Dumaz-le-GrandFabaceaeNyala treeGround bark is given to cattle for eating disorders. Ground bark is mixed with salt or leaves are soaked for 12 hBark, leavesCattleEating problem and diarrhoeaLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Xanthocercis zambesiaca (Baker) Dumaz-le-GrandFabaceaeNyala treeGround bark is applied topicallyBark nsWounds Magwede et al., [39]
Ximenia americana L. var. microphylla Welw. ex Oliv.OlacaceaeTallowwoodRoot-bark is powderedRoot barkCattle sheep, goatsWoundsLuseba and Tshisikhawe [37]
Ximenia americana L. var. microphylla Welw. ex Oliv.OlacaceaeTallowwoodnsRootsCattle Internal parasites Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.RutaceaeSmall knobwoodInfusion prepared Grewia occidentalis, Olea europaea subsp. africana leaves and Aloe ferox sap LeavesnsGallsickess Dold and Cocks [34]
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.RutaceaeSmall knobwoodDecoction RootsGoats Gastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornLeaf pasteLeavesCattle MastitisChitura et al., [33]
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornBark is soaked in water while leaves are ground into pulpBark and leavesnsWound Magwede et al., [39]
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornInfusion RootsGoatsGastro-intestinal parasites Maphosa and Masika [41]
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornPoulticeRoots CattleRetained placentaMoichwanetse et al., (2020)
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornCrushed leaves and soft branches poultice: crushed and placed on a hard abscess Leaves, branchesnsAbscess ripeningNdou [47]
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.RhamnaceaeBuffalo thornnsLeaves, rootsCattle Fertility enhancement, sores and burns Van der Merwe et al., [52]
Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew (Syn: Ziziphus acuminata Royle)Rhamnaceae Pointed-leaf jujubePoulticeRoots CattleRetained placenta and increase stimulation for separating retained placentaMoichwanetse et al., [43]
Ziziphus zeyheriana Sond.Rhamnaceae Dwarf buffalo-thornnsRoot-stocknsDiarrhoea internal parasites. General ailments Luseba and Van der Merwe [38]
Ziziphus zeyheriana Sond.RhamnaceaeDwarf buffalo-thornRoot decoction: Combined with roots of Cadaba aphylla, Senna italica and Dicoma galpinii. Root decoction combined with root of Helichrysum caespititium. Root decoction combined with root of Grewia flava, oral route. The sick calf is given about half a litre of the decoction orallyRootsCattleBlood cleansing, pains (from sores, fractures), calf diarrhoeaNdou [47]
Table 3. Examples of in vitro antibacterial activity of woody plants with ethnoveterinary applications in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; MIC—minimum inhibitory concentration, ns—not specified.
Table 3. Examples of in vitro antibacterial activity of woody plants with ethnoveterinary applications in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; MIC—minimum inhibitory concentration, ns—not specified.
# Plant SpeciesPlant PartSolventTest System Test Organism Positive ControlFindingsReference
Acokanthera oppositifoliaLeavesPetroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Neomycin (0.39–1.56 µg/mL)All extract had no noteworthy (MIC > 1 mg/mL) antibacterial
effect
Aremu et al., [71]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Syn:
Cyathea dregei)
LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLModerate antibacterial activity with MIC = 0.63 mg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Syn:
Cyathea dregei)
Leaves, rootsPetroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Neomycin (0.39–1.56 µg/mL)Petroleum ether and ethanol root extracts had noteworthy antibacterial activity (MIC < 1 mg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteriaAremu et al., [71]
Apodytes dimidiata E.Mey. ex Arn.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLModerate antibacterial activity with MIC = 0.31 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosaAdamu et al., [68]
Baphia racemosa (Hochst.) BakerLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 160 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 310 μg/mL)Dzoyem et al., [67]
Berchemia zeyheri (Sond.) GrubovBark Hexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilution methodEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible (MIC < 1 mg/mL) to hexane and methanol extracts McGaw et al., [70]
# Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) HarmsLeaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.04 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth.Leaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.31 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex. Benth.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.16–0.31 mg/mL) Adamu et al., [68]
Combretum caffrum Eckl. & Zeyh.) KuntzeBarkAcetone, methanol, and waterAgar plateEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus kristinae, Klebsiella
pneumonia, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae
nsMethanol extract inhibited both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranging from 0.5–5 mg/mL. Acetone extract mainly inhibited (MIC = 0.5 mg/mL) Gram-positive bacterial strains. Water extract showed activity against five Gram-positive and one Gram-negative bacteriaMasika and Afolayan [72]
Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K.Schum.Leaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.16 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Crotalaria capensis Jacq.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 80 μg/mL) and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 20 μg/mL)Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Cussonia spicata Thunb.BarkMethanol and dichloromethaneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin = 0.l mg/mLNo noteworthy antibacterial activityLuseba et al., [73]
# Cussonia spicata Thunb.Root Hexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)No noteworthy (MIC > 1 mg/mL) antibacterial effects for all of the tested extractsMcGaw et al., [70]
Dalbergia nitidula BakerLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Bacillus cereus (MIC = 80 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch.Aerial partHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Methanol extract had noteworthy (MIC = 0.4 mg/mL) antibacterial effect against Gram-positive bacteriaMcGaw et al., [70]
Elaeodendron croceum (Thunb.) DC.Leaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.31 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Erythrina caffra Thunb.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 80 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Euphorbia cupularis Boiss. Synadenium cuplare)Stem/leavesHexane Serial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Hexane extract showed a weak inhibition against two Gram- positive McGaw et al., [70]
# Heteromorpha
arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Leaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.16 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Heteromorpha trifoliata (H.L.Wendl.) Eckl. & ZeyhLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLModerate antibacterial activity with MIC = 0.63 against two Gram-negative bacteriaAdamu et al., [68]
# Hippobromus
pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk.
Aerial partHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Methanol extracts had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.2 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureusMcGaw et al., [70]
Indigofera frutescens L.f. (Syn: Indigofera
cylindrica DC.)
LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.08–0.31 mg/mL) against the four bacterial strainsAdamu et al., [68]
Indigofera frutescens L.f. (Syn: Indigofera
cylindrica DC.)
LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 40 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.02–0.08 mg/mL) against the four bacterial strainsAdamu et al., [68]
Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.Leaves, stemPetroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol, waterSerial microplate dilutionBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniaNeomycin (0.39–1.56 μg/mL)Majority of the solvent extracts from the leaves had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.025–0.78 mg/mL) against all four bacterial strains. Stem organic solvent extracts had remarkable MIC (0.39–0.78 mg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria[69]
Lonchocarpus nelsii (Schinz) Heering & GrimmeLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 80 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.02–0.08 mg/mL) against the four bacterial strainsAdamu et al., [68]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.Leaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.02 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Melia azedarach L.Leaves AcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.16–0.63 mg/mL) against the four bacterial strainsAdamu et al., [68]
# Millettia grandis (E.Mey.) SkeelsLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLModerate antibacterial activity with MIC = 0.31 mg/mL against four bacteriaAdamu et al., [68]
Morus mesozygia StapfLeaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.04 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Pittosporum viridiflorum SimsLeaves Acetone Serial microplate dilutionBacillus anthracisGentamicin = 0.0002 mg/mLMIC = 0.08 mg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Podalyria calyptrata (Retz.) Willd.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against
Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 160 μg/mL)
Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Pterocarpus angolensis DC.BarkDichloromethane and 90% methanol Serial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin = 0.l mg/mLModerate antibacterial activity with MIC = 0.31 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureusLuseba et al., [73]
Salix mucronata subsp. capensis (Thunb.) Immelman (Salix capensis)BarkAcetone, methanol, and waterAgar plateEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus kristinae, Klebsiella
pneumonia, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae
nsAcetone and methanol extracts inhibited both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranging from 0.5 to 5 mg/mLMasika and Afolayan [72]
# Schotia brachypetala Sond.Bark, leavseHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilution Escherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Bark methanol extract had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.1–0.2 mg/mL) against two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Leaf methanol extract had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.2–0.4 mg/mL) against two Gram-positive bacterial strainsMcGaw et al., [70]
# Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.LeavesHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Methanol extract had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.1–0.4 mg/mL) against two Gram-
positive bacterial strains
McGaw et al., [70]
# Searsia lancea (L.f.) F.A.Barkley (Rhus lanceas)Bark, leavesHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilution Escherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Bark methanol extract had noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.2 mg/mL) against two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Leaf methanol extract had noteworthy MIC (0.2 mg/mL) against
Staphylococcus aureus
McGaw et al., [70]
Virgilia divaricata
Adamson
LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 80 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Volkameria glabra (E. Mey.) Mabb. & Y. W. Yuan (Syn: Clerodendrum glabrum)LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionEscherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.31–0.63 mg/mL) against two Gram-negative bacterial strainsAdamu et al., [68]
Xylia torreana BrenanLeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilutionStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium
Gentamicin = 0.2–1.56 μg/mLNoteworthy effect against Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 160 μg/mL) Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.LeavesAcetoneSerial microplate dilution Escherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Gentamicin ≤ 0.02 mg/mLNoteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.31 mg/mL) against
Enterococcus faecalis and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Adamu et al., [68]
# Ziziphus mucronata Willd.Bark, leavesHexane, methanol, and waterSerial microplate dilution Escherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus
Neomycin (0.78–25 μM)Bark extracts had no noteworthy antibacterial effect (MIC > 1 mg/mL) against all of the tested bacterial strains. Leaf methanol extracts had noteworthy
antibacterial effect (MIC = 0.2 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus
aureus
McGaw et al., [70]
Table 4. Examples of anthelmintic effects of woody plants with ethnoveterinary applications in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; $ Assay type: CA—colourimetric assay, DBA—developmental and behavioral assay; * Findings: EHA—egg hatch assay; LDT—larval development test; MLC—minimum lethal concentration.
Table 4. Examples of anthelmintic effects of woody plants with ethnoveterinary applications in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; $ Assay type: CA—colourimetric assay, DBA—developmental and behavioral assay; * Findings: EHA—egg hatch assay; LDT—larval development test; MLC—minimum lethal concentration.
# Plant SpeciesSolvent$ Assay TypePlant-PartParasitePositive Control* FindingsReference
# Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) CoddPetroleum ether,
dichloromethane,
ethanol, and water
CALeaves, twigsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (40 μg/mL)Petroleum ether and ethanol leaf extracts had noteworthy MLC (0.52 mg/mL)Aremu et al., [71]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Cyathea dregei)Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol, and water CALeaves, rootsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (40 μg/mL)Dichloromethane and ethanol leaf extracts had noteworthy MLC (0.52 mg/mL)Aremu et al., [71]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Cyathea dregei)Acetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 17.64 mg/mL (EHA), 17.93 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Cyathea dregei)Petroleum ether,
dichloromethane,
ethanol, and water
CALeaves, rootsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (40 μg/mL)Dichloromethane and ethanol extracts had noteworthy MLC (0.52 mg/mL)Aremu et al., [71]
Apodytes dimidiataAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 5.7 mg/mL (EHA), 4.13 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Berchemia zeyheriHexane, methanol, and waterDBABark Caenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Methanol extract had moderate (30%) lethality at 2 mg/mL McGaw et al., [70]
Brachylaena discolorAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 3.55 mg/mL (EHA), 17.23 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Calpurnia aureaAcetoneDBALeaves/flowers, stemHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (100% at 0.008–25 μg/mL)EHA inhibition = 27% (leaves/flowers), 32% (stem)Fouche et al., [75]
Clausena anisataAcetoneDBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 1.8 mg/mL (EHA), 2.07 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Combretum apiculatum Sond. Subsp. ApiculatumEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Ethyl acetate extract had 70–80% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum bracteosum (Hochst.) Engl. & DielsEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumcelastroides Welw ex Laws subsp. CelastroidesEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumcollinum FresenEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 10–20% lethality at 0.5 and 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum edwardsii ExellEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone and ethyl acetate extracts had 10–20% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumerythrophyllum (Burch.) Sond.Ethyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone and ethyl acetate extracts had 10–20% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumhereroense SchinzEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumimberbe WawraEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretumkraussii Hochst. (Syn: Combretum nelsonii)Ethyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 0.5 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
# Combretum microphyllumEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone and ethyl acetate extracts had 10–20% lethality at 0.5 and 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum mkuzense J.D.Carr & RetiefEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum moggi ExellEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
# Combretum molle R.Br. ex. G.DonEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum mossambicense (Klotzsch) Engl.Ethyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 20–30% lethality at 1 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum padoides Engl.Ethyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
# Combretum paniculatum Vent.Ethyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 10–20% lethality at 0.5 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum petrophilum RetiefEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole Acetone extract had 10–20% lethality at 0.5 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum woodiiEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
Combretum zeyheriEthyl acetate, acetone, and waterDBALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole No activity observedMcGaw et al., [80]
# Curtisia dentataDichloromethane and acetone DBALeaves Caenorhabditis
elegans, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Acetone extracts had the highest inhibition at 2.5 mg/mL after 2 h and 7 days of incubation. Both extracts inhibited the highest motility at 1.25–2.5 (Haemonchus contortus) and 0.63–2.5 mg/mL (Trichostrongylus colubriformis)Shai et al., [81]
# Cussonia spicataHexane, methanol, and waterDBARootsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)No noteworthy activityMcGaw et al., [70]
# Dombeya rotundifoliaHexane, methanol, and waterDBAAerial partsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Water extract had 20% lethality at 1 and 2 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [70]
# Euphorbia cupularis (Syn: Synadenium cupulare (Boiss.)Hexane, methanol, and waterDBAStem/leavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)No noteworthy activityMcGaw et al., [70]
Ficus sycomorusAcetoneDBABark/stem, stem Haemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (100% at 0.008–25 μg/mL)EHA inhibition = 25% (bark/stem), 21% (stem)Fouche et al., [75]
Heteromorpha trifoliataAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 0.62 mg/mL (EHA), 0.64 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Hippobromus pauciflorusHexane, methanol, and waterDBAAerial partsCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Hexane extract had 50% lethality at 2 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [70]
Indigofera frutescensAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 7.11 mg/mL (EHA), 7.58 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Leucosidea sericeaAcetoneDBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 1.08 mg/mL (EHA), 1.27 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Leucosidea sericeaPetroleum ether,
dichloromethane,
ethanol, and water
CALeaves, stemCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (40 μg/mL)Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethanol leaf extracts had noteworthy anthelmintic effect (MLC = 0.26–0.52 mg/mL)Aremu et al., [69]
# Maerua angolensisAcetoneDBAStem, leaves Haemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (100% at 0.008–25 μg/mL)EHA inhibition = 65% (stem), 25% (leaves)Fouche et al., [75]
Maesa lanceolataAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 0.72 mg/mL (EHA), 1.68 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
Melia azedarachAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50= 6.24 mg/mL (EHA), 10.96 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Milletia grandisAcetoneDBALeaves Haemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/m)EC50= 5.57 mg/mL (EHA), 6.11 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Schotia brachypetala SondHexane, methanol, and waterDBALeaves, barkCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)All solvent extracts from, bark had 10% at 2 mg/mL. Hexane extract from leaves had 10% lethality at 2 mg/mL McGaw et al., [70]
# Sclerocarya birreaAcetoneDBAFruitHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (100% at 0.008–25 μg/mL)EHA inhibition = 28% Fouche et al., [75]
# Sclerocarya birreaHexane, methanol, and waterDBABarkCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Methanol extract had 40% lethality at 2 mg/mL McGaw et al., [70]
# Searsia lancea (Syn: Rhus lancea)Hexane, methanol, and waterDBALeaves, barkCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)Hexane extracts had 50% (leaves) and 40% (bark) lethality at 2 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [70]
# Senna petersianaPetroleum ether,
dichloromethane,
ethanol, and water
CALeavesCaenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (40 μg/mL)Ethanol extract = 0.52 mg/mLAremu et al., [71]
Strychnos mitisAcetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 16.56 mg/mL (EHA), 16.94 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Tabernaemontana elegansAcetoneDBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (100% at 0.008–25 μg/mL)EHA inhibition = 47% Fouche et al., [75]
# Volkameria glabra (Clerodendrum glabrum)Acetone DBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 1.48 mg/mL (EHA), 12.97 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Zanthoxylum capenseAcetoneDBALeavesHaemonchus
contortus
Albendazole (0.008–25 μg/mL)EC50 = 13.26 mg/mL (EHA), 13.64 mg/mL (LDT)Adamu et al., [76]
# Ziziphus mucronataHexane, methanol, and waterDBABark, leaves Caenorhabditis
elegans
Levamisole (10 μg/mL)No noteworthy activityMcGaw et al., [70]
Table 5. Examples of in vitro antioxidant effect of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2. ABTS—2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH—1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, FRAP—ferric reducing antioxidant power, TEAC—trolox equivalent antioxidant assay.
Table 5. Examples of in vitro antioxidant effect of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2. ABTS—2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH—1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, FRAP—ferric reducing antioxidant power, TEAC—trolox equivalent antioxidant assay.
# Plant SpeciesAssay TypePlant Part FindingsReference
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Syn: Cyathea dregei)DPPHLeavesEC50 = 3 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon (Syn: Cyathea dregei)ABTSLeaves0.4 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Apodytes dimidiata E.Mey. ex. Arn.DPPH LeavesEC50 = 3.5 µg/mL Adamu et al., [68]
Apodytes dimidiata E.Mey. ex. Arn.ABTSLeaves0.3 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Brachylaena discolor DC.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 2.6 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Brachylaena discolor DC.ABTSLeaves0.2 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Burkea africana Hook. DPPHLeavesIC50 = 3.55 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Burkea africana Hook. ABTSLeavesIC50 = 3.21 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Burkea africana Hook. FRAPLeavesIC50 = 231.07 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex. Benth.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 2.5 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex. Benth.ABTSLeaves0.2 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Combretum zeyheri Sond.DPPHLeavesIC50 = 3.52 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Combretum zeyheri Sond.ABTSLeavesIC50 = 4.64 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Combretum zeyheri Sond.FRAPLeavesIC50 = 95.98 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Dalbergia nitidula Welw. ex. BakerDPPHLeavesIC50 = 9.31 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
Dalbergia nitidula Welw. ex. BakerABTSLeavesIC50 = 21.3 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.PennDPPHLeavesIC50 = 10.8 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.PennABTSLeavesIC50 = 12.22 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.PennFRAPLeavesIC50 = 76 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
#Erythrina caffra Thunb.DPPHLeavesIC50 = 268.6 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
#Erythrina caffra Thunb.ABTSLeavesIC50 = 173.28 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
Euclea undulata Thunb.DPPHLeaves31.66 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Euclea undulata Thunb.ABTSLeaves32.67 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Euclea undulata Thunb.FRAPLeaves274.19 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Heteromorpha trifoliata (H.L.Wendl.) Eckl. & Zeyh.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 4.36 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Heteromorpha trifoliata (H.L.Wendl.) Eckl. & Zeyh.ABTSLeaves0.2 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Indigofera frutescens L.f.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 0 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Indigofera frutescens L.f.ABTSLeaves0.5 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Indigofera frutescens L.f.DPPHLeavesIC50 = 22.31 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
Indigofera frutescens L.f.ABTSLeavesIC50 = 134.64 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Jatropha curcas L.DPPHLeavesIC50 = 137.08 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Jatropha curcas L.ABTSLeavesIC50 = 115.23 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Jatropha curcas L.FRAPLeavesIC50 = 68.17 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de WitDPPHLeavesIC50 = 9.86 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de WitABTSLeavesIC50 = 9.85 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de WitFRAPLeavesIC50 = 289.27 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucosidea sericeaDPPHLeavesEC50 = 0.0 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Leucosidea sericeaABTSLeaves0.7 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 1.4 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.ABTSLeaves1.2 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Melia azedarach L.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 3.3 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Melia azedarach L.ABTSLeaves0.8 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
# Millettia grandis (E.Mey.) SkeelsDPPHLeavesEC50 = 4.6 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
# Millettia grandis (E.Mey.) SkeelsABTSLeaves0.6 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Morus mesozygia StapfDPPHLeavesIC50 = 15.85 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Morus mesozygia StapfABTSLeavesIC50 = 271.86 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Morus mesozygia StapfFRAPLeavesIC50 = 127.34 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Philenoptera nelsii (Schinz) Schrire (Lonchocarpus nelsii)DPPHLeavesIC50 = 247.7 μg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Philenoptera nelsii (Schinz) Schrire (Lonchocarpus nelsii)ABTSLeavesIC50 = 41.39 μg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Strychnos mitis S.MooreDPPHLeavesEC50 = 3.5 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
Strychnos mitis S.MooreABTSLeaves0.3 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg.DPPHLeavesIC50 = 125.86 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg.ABTSLeavesIC50 = 28.81 µg/mLDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg.FRAPLeavesIC50 = 177.32 µg Fe (II)/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Volkameria glabra (E. Mey.) Mabb. & Y. W. Yuan (Syn: Clerodendrum
glabrum)
DPPHLeavesEC50 = 3.5 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
# Volkameria glabra (E. Mey.) Mabb. & Y. W. Yuan (Syn: Clerodendrum
glabrum)
ABTSLeaves0.5 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
# Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.DPPHLeavesEC50 = 4 µg/mLAdamu et al., [68]
# Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.ABTSLeaves0.4 TEACAdamu et al., [68]
Table 6. Cytotoxic activity of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; * Test system: MTT—3–5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide.
Table 6. Cytotoxic activity of woody plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes in South Africa. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; * Test system: MTT—3–5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide.
# Plant Species Solvent Plant Part* Test SystemPositive ControlFindingsReference
Alsophila dregei (Syn:
Cyathea dregei)
AcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.00332 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Apodytes dimidiataAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.00396 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Berchemia zeyheriHexane, methanol, and waterBarkBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)Water extract had the highest lethal effect (LC50 = 3.9 mg/mL)McGaw et al., [70]
# Bolusanthus speciosusAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 52.8 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Brachylaena discolorAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.00752 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Calpurnia aureaAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 13.6 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Calpurnia aureaAcetoneLeaves/flowers, stem Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.97 μg/mL)Leaves/flowers, LC50 = 166.63 μg/mL, Stem LC50 = 223.97 μg/mLFouche et al., [75]
Clausena anisataAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.17186 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Cremaspora trifloraAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 57.4 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Cussonia spicataHexane, methanol, and waterRootsBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)Water extract had the highest lethal effect (LC50 = 2.6 mg/mL)McGaw et al., [70]
Dalbergia nitidulaAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.29 μg/mL)LC50 = 51.28 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Dombeya rotundifoliaHexane, methanol, and waterAerial partBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)All extracts had no lethal effectMcGaw et al., [70]
Elaeodendron croceum (Thunb.) DC.AcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 5.2 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Erythrina caffraAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.29 μg/mL)LC50 = 19.93 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Euphorbia cupularis (Syn: Synadenium cupulare)Hexane, methanol, and waterAerial part Brine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)All extracts had no lethal effectMcGaw et al., [70]
Ficus sycomorusAcetoneBark/stem, stem Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.97 μg/mL)LC50 = 172.94 μg/mL (bark/stem), LC50 = 48.74 μg/mL (stem)Fouche et al., [75]
# Heteromorpha arborescensAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 81.0 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Heteromorpha trifoliataAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.04252 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Hippobromus pauciflorusHexane, methanol, and waterAerial partBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)All extract had no lethal effectMcGaw et al., [70]
Indigofera cylindricaAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.29 μg/mL)LC50 = 77.59 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
Indigofera frutescensAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.1044 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Leucosidea sericeaAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.0515 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Lonchocarpus nelsiiAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.29 μg/mL)LC50 = 81.09 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Maerua angolensisAcetoneStem, leavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.97 μg/mL)LC50 = 180.64 μg/mL (stem), LC50 = 73.76 μg/mL (leaves)Fouche et al., [75]
Maesa lanceolataAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.01577 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Maesa lanceolataAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 0.38 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
Melia azedarachAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.14466 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Milletia grandisAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.05336 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
Morus mesozygiaAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 40.7 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Pittosporum viridiflorumAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin = 1.76 µg/mLLC50 = 54.6 μg/mLElisha et al., [66]
# Pterocarpus angolensisHexane, methanol, and waterBark, leaves Brine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)All extracts from the bark had no lethal effect. Hexane and methanol extracts from the leaves had the highest lethal effect (LC50 = 3.6–3.8 mg/mL)McGaw et al., [70]
# Sclerocarya birreaAcetoneFruit Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.97 μg/mL)LC50 = 214.79 μg/mLFouche et al., [75]
# Sclerocarya birreaHexane, methanol, and waterBarkBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)All extracts had no lethal effectMcGaw et al., [70]
# Searsia lancea (Rhus lancea)Hexane, methanol, and waterBark, leavesBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)Water extract from the bark (LC50 = 3.9 mg/mL) and leaves (LC50 = 0.6 mg/mL) had the highest toxic effectMcGaw et al., [70]
Strychnos mitisAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.01721 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Tabernaemontana elegansAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.97 μg/mL)LC50 = 32.35 μg/mLFouche et al., [75]
# Tetradenia ripariaAcetone and waterFlowers, leaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (5.4326 µM)LC50, flowers = 0.0823 mg/mL (acetone), 0.1784 mg/mL (water); leaves = 0.0513 mg/mL (acetone), 0.2738 mg/mL (water)Sserunkuma et al., [86]
# Vachellia nilotica (Acacia nilotica)Acetone and waterBark, leavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (5.4326 µM)LC50, bark = 0.0332 mg/mL (acetone), 0.0278 mg/mL (water); leaves = 0.2187 mg/mL (acetone), 0.0688 mg/mL (water)Sserunkuma et al., [86]
Virgilia divaricata AdamsonAcetoneLeaves Tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Doxorubicin (2.29 μg/mL)LC50 = 30.08 μg/mLDzoyem et al., [67]
# Volkameria glabra (Clerodendrum glabrum)AcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chloride LC50 = 0.04251 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Zanthoxylum capenseAcetoneLeavesTetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT
assay using Vero monkey kidney cells
Berberine chlorideLC50 = 0.02095 mg/mLAdamu et al., [76]
# Ziziphus mucronataHexane, methanol
and water
Bark, leavesBrine shrimp lethality/toxicity using
Artemia salina
Podophyllotoxin (7 μg/mL)Bark extracts had no lethal effect. Hexane extract of leaves had LC50 = 0.9 mg/mLMcGaw et al., [70]
Table 7. Phytochemical analysis (based on spectrophotometric method) of woody plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; GAE—gallic acid equivalents, TPC—total phenolic content, TFC—total flavonoid content, CT—condensed tannin, GC—gallotannin content, LCE—leucocyanidin equivalents, CTE—catechin equivalents, QE—quercetin equivalents.
Table 7. Phytochemical analysis (based on spectrophotometric method) of woody plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine. # Plant species: denotes woody plants with ethnoveterinary uses in Table 2; GAE—gallic acid equivalents, TPC—total phenolic content, TFC—total flavonoid content, CT—condensed tannin, GC—gallotannin content, LCE—leucocyanidin equivalents, CTE—catechin equivalents, QE—quercetin equivalents.
# Plant SpeciesPlant PartExtractFindings Reference
# Acokanthera oppositifoliaLeaves, twigs50% MethanolTPC = 2.5 and 7.2 mg GAE/g
GC = 2 µg and 5.2 µg GAE/g
CT = 0.005% and 0.12% LCE/g
TFC = 0.002 and 0.001 mg CTE/g
Aremu et al., [71]
Burkea africanaLeavesAcetoneTPC = 14.39 mg GAE/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Combretum zeyheriLeavesAcetoneTPC = 3.29 mg GAE/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Curtisia dentataStem barkAcetoneTPC = 8.94 mg GAE/gOlaokun et al., [90]
Dalbergia nitidulaLeavesAcetoneTPC = 1.51 mg GAE/gDzoyem et al., [67]
# Englerophytum magalismontanumLeavesAcetoneTPC = 0.86 mg GAE/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
# Erythrina caffraLeavesAcetoneTPC = 150.82 mg/g GAE
TFC = 72.8 mg QE/g
Dzoyem et al., [67]
Euclea undulataLeavesAcetoneTPC = 234.56 mg/g GAE
TFC = 64.36 mg QE/g
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
Indigofera frutescens (Indigofera cylindrical)LeavesAcetoneTPC = 125.12 mg/g GAE
TFC = 27.69 mg/g QE
Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Jatropha curcasLeavesAcetoneTPC = 100.89 mg/g GAE
TFC = 68.43 mg QE/g
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucaena leucocephalaLeavesAcetoneTPC = 129.78 mg/g GAE
TFC = 35.16 mg QE/g
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
Leucosidea sericeaLeaves, stem50% MethanolTPC = 36.66 and 6.4 mg GAE/g
GC = 29.32 and 5.12 µg GAE/g
CT = 0.46 and 0.47% LCE/g
TFC = 0.66 and 0.26 mg CTE/g
Aremu et al., [69]
Lippia javanica (Burm.f) SprengLeavesAcetoneTPC = 130.12 mg GAE/gDzoyem and Eloff [85]
Morus mesozygiaLeavesAcetoneTPC = 427.53 mg/g GAE
TFC = 80.72 mg QE/g
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
Philenoptera nelsii (Lonchocarpus nelsii)LeavesAcetoneTPC = 258.4 mg/g GAE
TFC = 159.61 mg QE/g
Dzoyem et al., [67]
# Pittosporum viridiflorum SimsStem barkAcetone TPC = 181.49 mg/g GAE
TFC = 13.75 mg QE/g
Olaokun et al., [90]
# Senna petersianaLeaves50% MethanolTPC = 5 mg GAE/g
GC = 4 µg GAE/g
CT = 0.18% LCE/g
TFC = 0.1 mg CTE/g
Aremu et al., [71]
Uapaca nitidaLeavesAcetoneTPC = 26.08 mg/g GAE
TFC = 20.31 mg/g QE
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
Virgilia divaricata AdamsonLeavesAcetoneTPC = 137.3 mg/g GAE
TFC = 15.3 mg QE/g
Dzoyem et al., [67]
Ziziphus rivularis CoddLeavesAcetoneTPC = 182.79 mg/g GAE
TFC = 46.88 mg QE/g
Dzoyem and Eloff [85]
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Selogatwe, K.M.; Asong, J.A.; Struwig, M.; Ndou, R.V.; Aremu, A.O. A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa. Vet. Sci. 2021, 8, 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

AMA Style

Selogatwe KM, Asong JA, Struwig M, Ndou RV, Aremu AO. A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa. Veterinary Sciences. 2021; 8(10):228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

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Selogatwe, Kelebogile Martha, John Awungnjia Asong, Madeleen Struwig, Rendani Victress Ndou, and Adeyemi Oladapo Aremu. 2021. "A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa" Veterinary Sciences 8, no. 10: 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

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