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Review

A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa

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Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
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Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
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Indigenous Knowledge Systems Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
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Centre of Animal Health Studies, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Huisheng Xie, Jiahao Lin, Kai Fan and Jennifer Ketzis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228
Received: 5 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine)
Globally, the use of ethnoveterinary medicine as remedies for animal health among different ethnic groups justify the need for a systematic exploration to enhance their potential. In addition, the increasing popularity and utilisation of woody plants remain common in traditional medicine, which may be attributed to their inherent benefits. The current review was aimed at analysing ethnoveterinary surveys, biological activities, and secondary metabolites/phytochemical profiles of the woody plants of South Africa. Eligible literature (period: 2000 to 2020) were retrieved from different databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sabinet, and Science Direct. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 ethnoveterinary surveys were eligible and were subjected to further analysis. We identified 104 woody plant species from 44 plant families that are used in the treatment of different diseases in animals, particularly cattle (70%) and goats (20%). The most mentioned (with six citations) woody plants were Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., which were followed by plants with five (Cussonia spicata Thunb., Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) or four (Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd, Cassia abbreviata Oliv., and Strychnos henningsii Gilg) individual mentions. The most dominant families were Fabaceae (19%), Apocynaceae (5.8%), Rubiaceae (5.8%), Anacardiaceae (4.8%), Combretaceae (4.8%), Euphorbiaceae (4.8%), Malvaceae (4.8%), Rhamnaceae (4.8%), and Celastraceae (3.8%). Bark (33%), leaves (29%), and roots (19%) were the plant parts dominantly used to prepare remedies for ethnoveterinary medicine. An estimated 20% of woody plants have been screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity effects. Phytochemical profiles established a rich pool of valuable secondary metabolites (phenolic, flavonoids and condensed tannins) that may be responsible for the exerted biological activities. Overall, the significant portion of woody plants lacking empirical evidence on their biological effects indicates a major knowledge gap that requires more research efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; antioxidant; ethnoveterinary; Fabaceae; livestock diseases; retained placenta antibacterial; antioxidant; ethnoveterinary; Fabaceae; livestock diseases; retained placenta
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MDPI and ACS Style

Selogatwe, K.M.; Asong, J.A.; Struwig, M.; Ndou, R.V.; Aremu, A.O. A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa. Vet. Sci. 2021, 8, 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

AMA Style

Selogatwe KM, Asong JA, Struwig M, Ndou RV, Aremu AO. A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa. Veterinary Sciences. 2021; 8(10):228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Selogatwe, Kelebogile M., John A. Asong, Madeleen Struwig, Rendani V. Ndou, and Adeyemi O. Aremu 2021. "A Review of Ethnoveterinary Knowledge, Biological Activities and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Woody Plants Used for Managing Animal Health in South Africa" Veterinary Sciences 8, no. 10: 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228

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