Development of Artificial Neural Network Models to Assess Beer Acceptability Based on Sensory Properties Using a Robotic Pourer: A Comparative Model Approach to Achieve an Artificial Intelligence System
School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2019, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5020033
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become popular for optimization and prediction of parameters in foods, beverages, agriculture and medicine. For brewing, they have been explored to develop rapid methods to assess product quality and acceptability. Different beers (N = 17) were analyzed in triplicates using a robotic pourer, RoboBEER (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), to assess 15 color and foam-related parameters using computer-vision. Those samples were tested using sensory analysis for acceptability of carbonation mouthfeel, bitterness, flavor and overall liking with 30 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale. ANN models were developed using 17 different training algorithms with 15 color and foam-related parameters as inputs and liking of four descriptors obtained from consumers as targets. Each algorithm was tested using five, seven and ten neurons and compared to select the best model based on correlation coefficients, slope and performance (mean squared error (MSE). Bayesian Regularization algorithm with seven neurons presented the best correlation (R = 0.98) and highest performance (MSE = 0.03) with no overfitting. These models may be used as a cost-effective method for fast-screening of beers during processing to assess acceptability more efficiently. The use of RoboBEER, computer-vision algorithms and ANN will allow the implementation of an artificial intelligence system for the brewing industry to assess its effectiveness.