Next Article in Journal
The Development of a Menthol Solution for Use during Sport and Exercise
Next Article in Special Issue
Known and Emerging Mycotoxins in Small- and Large-Scale Brewed Beer
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS) Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4020043

Simultaneous Determination of AFB1 and AFM1 in Milk Samples by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

1
Department of Food Science and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
Full-Text   |   PDF [540 KB, uploaded 8 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Milk is the world’s most consumed beverage, not counting water. Even though investigations on milk aflatoxin (AF) M1 contamination are regularly conducted, there is limited information on the contamination of milk with its parent compound, AFB1. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based method for the simultaneous analysis of AFB1 and AFM1 in milk, using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The recoveries were in a range of 75–96% at 0.005, 0.01, and 0.05 µg/L spiking levels, with repeatability and reproducibility results expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7% and 16%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.001 and 0.002 µg/L for AFM1 and AFB1, respectively. The LODs and LOQs that were obtained showed the suitability of the developed method for the determination of trace amounts of the selected mycotoxins in milk samples, and were up to ten times lower than those that had been reported in previous works using triple quadrupole mass analyzers. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantification. The validated method was applied to 40 Italian milk samples. Neither AFB1 nor AFM1 were found above the LOD in any of the analyzed samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin M1; aflatoxin B1; milk; mass spectrometry; QuEChERS; Orbitrap HRMS aflatoxin M1; aflatoxin B1; milk; mass spectrometry; QuEChERS; Orbitrap HRMS
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Carrasco, Y.; Izzo, L.; Gaspari, A.; Graziani, G.; Mañes, J.; Ritieni, A. Simultaneous Determination of AFB1 and AFM1 in Milk Samples by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Beverages 2018, 4, 43.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Beverages EISSN 2306-5710 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top