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Specifically Designed Ionic Liquids—Formulations, Physicochemical Properties, and Electrochemical Double Layer Storage Behavior

1
Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
2
5X Energy Solutions, Inc., 805 Plainfield Rd., Suite 112, Darien, IL 60561, USA
3
National Academy of Economic Security, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100000, China
4
Department of Physical Sciences, Dominican University, River Forest, IL 60305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3020058
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ionic Liquid-Based Mixed Solvent Systems)
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Abstract

Two key features—non-volatility and non-flammability—make ionic liquids (ILs) very attractive for use as electrolyte solvents in advanced energy storage systems, such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. Since most ILs possess high viscosity and are less prone to dissolving common electrolytic salts when compared to traditional electrolytic solvents, they must be formulated with low viscosity thinner solvents to achieve desired ionic conductivity and dissolution of electrolyte salts in excess of 0.5 M concentration. In the past few years, our research group has synthesized several specifically designed ILs (mono-cationic, di-cationic, and zwitterionic) with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) and dicyanamide (DCA) as counter anions. This article describes several electrolyte formulations to achieve superior electrolytic properties. The performance of a few representative IL-based electrolytes in supercapacitor coin cells is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionic liquids; di-cationic ionic liquids; zwitterionic liquids; ionic conductivity; viscosity; nonflammable electrolytes; supercapacitor cells ionic liquids; di-cationic ionic liquids; zwitterionic liquids; ionic conductivity; viscosity; nonflammable electrolytes; supercapacitor cells
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Yue, Z.; Ma, Q.; Mei, X.; Schulz, A.; Dunya, H.; Alramahi, D.; McGarry, C.; Tufts, J.; Chakrabarti, A.; Saha, R.; Mandal, B.K. Specifically Designed Ionic Liquids—Formulations, Physicochemical Properties, and Electrochemical Double Layer Storage Behavior. ChemEngineering 2019, 3, 58.

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