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The Biological Efficacy of Natural Products against Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases in the Oral Region

1
Department of Dental Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Gobara Hirooka, Shiojiri 399-0781, Japan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295, Japan
3
Department of Dental Pharmacology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040122
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract

The oral inflammatory diseases are divided into two types: acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize the biological efficacy of herbal medicine, natural products, and their active ingredients against acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in the oral region, especially stomatitis and periodontitis. We review the effects of herbal medicines and a biscoclaurin alkaloid preparation, cepharamthin, as a therapy against stomatitis, an acute inflammatory disease. We also summarize the effects of herbal medicines and natural products against periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease, and one of its clinical conditions, alveolar bone resorption. Recent studies show that several herbal medicines such as kakkonto and ninjinto reduce LPS-induced PGE 2 production by human gingival fibroblasts. Among herbs constituting these herbal medicines, shokyo (Zingiberis Rhizoma) and kankyo (Zingiberis Processum Rhizoma) strongly reduce PGE 2 production. Moreover, anti-osteoclast activity has been observed in some natural products with anti-inflammatory effects used against rheumatoid arthritis such as carotenoids, flavonoids, limonoids, and polyphenols. These herbal medicines and natural products could be useful for treating oral inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory disease; stomatitis; periodontitis; anti-osteoclast activity; cepharanthin; herbal medicine; natural product; arachidonic acid cascade inflammatory disease; stomatitis; periodontitis; anti-osteoclast activity; cepharanthin; herbal medicine; natural product; arachidonic acid cascade
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Ara, T.; Nakatani, S.; Kobata, K.; Sogawa, N.; Sogawa, C. The Biological Efficacy of Natural Products against Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases in the Oral Region. Medicines 2018, 5, 122.

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