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Pathogenic Viruses Commonly Present in the Oral Cavity and Relevant Antiviral Compounds Derived from Natural Products

Department of Microbiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan
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Medicines 2018, 5(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040120
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract

Many viruses, such as human herpesviruses, may be present in the human oral cavity, but most are usually asymptomatic. However, if individuals become immunocompromised by age, illness, or as a side effect of therapy, these dormant viruses can be activated and produce a variety of pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Unfortunately, available treatments for viral infectious diseases are limited, because (1) there are diseases for which no treatment is available; (2) drug-resistant strains of virus may appear; (3) incomplete eradication of virus may lead to recurrence. Rational design strategies are widely used to optimize the potency and selectivity of drug candidates, but discovery of leads for new antiviral agents, especially leads with novel structures, still relies mostly on large-scale screening programs, and many hits are found among natural products, such as extracts of marine sponges, sea algae, plants, and arthropods. Here, we review representative viruses found in the human oral cavity and their effects, together with relevant antiviral compounds derived from natural products. We also highlight some recent emerging pharmaceutical technologies with potential to deliver antivirals more effectively for disease prevention and therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); antiviral; natural product; human virus anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); antiviral; natural product; human virus
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Asai, D.; Nakashima, H. Pathogenic Viruses Commonly Present in the Oral Cavity and Relevant Antiviral Compounds Derived from Natural Products. Medicines 2018, 5, 120.

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