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Oleic Acid Nanovesicles of Minoxidil for Enhanced Follicular Delivery

Department of Pharmaceutical sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of science & Technology, Hisar 125001, India
School of Pharmacy, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad 201206, India
National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 103;
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
PDF [3245 KB, uploaded 14 September 2018]


Current topical minoxidil (MXD) formulations involve an unpleasant organic solvent which causes patient incompliance in addition to side effects in some cases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop an MXD formulation providing enhanced follicular delivery and reduced side effects. Oleic acid, being a safer material, was utilized to prepare the nanovesicles, which were characterized for size, entrapment efficiency, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and morphology. The nanovesicles were incorporated into the emugel Sepineo® P 600 (2% w/v) to provide better longer contact time with the scalp and improve physical stability. The formulation was evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, and drug deposition studies. Follicular deposition of the vesicles was also evaluated using a differential tape stripping technique and elucidated using confocal microscopy. The optimum oleic acid vesicles measured particle size was 317 ± 4 nm, with high entrapment efficiency (69.08 ± 3.07%), narrow PDI (0.203 ± 0.01), and a negative zeta potential of −13.97 ± 0.451. The in vitro drug release showed the sustained release of MXD from vesicular gel. The skin permeation and deposition studies revealed superiority of the prepared MXD vesicular gel (0.2%) in terms of MXD deposition in the stratum corneum (SC) and remaining skin over MXD lotion (2%), with enhancement ratios of 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. The follicular deposition of MXD was 10-fold higher for vesicular gel than the control. Confocal microscopy also confirmed the higher absorption of rhodamine via vesicular gel into hair follicles as compared to the control. Overall, the current findings demonstrate the potential of oleic acid vesicles for effective targeted skin and follicular delivery of MXD. View Full-Text
Keywords: ufasomes; oleic acid vesicle; skin deposition; minoxidil; hair follicle delivery ufasomes; oleic acid vesicle; skin deposition; minoxidil; hair follicle delivery

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Kumar, P.; Singh, S.K.; Handa, V.; Kathuria, H. Oleic Acid Nanovesicles of Minoxidil for Enhanced Follicular Delivery. Medicines 2018, 5, 103.

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