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Medicines, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2014) – 6 articles , Pages 1-63

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112 KiB  
Review
Acupoint Activation: Response in Microcirculation and the Role of Mast Cells
by Guangjun Wang, Daniela Litscher, Yuying Tian, Ingrid Gaischek, Shuyong Jia, Lu Wang, Weibo Zhang and Gerhard Litscher
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 56-63; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010056 - 20 Nov 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5524
Abstract
Background: According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, acupuncture effects are based on the integrity function of meridians. Meridians are thought to regulate body function through the normal flow of qi and/or blood. Disturbances in this flow are thought to cause disease, and [...] Read more.
Background: According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, acupuncture effects are based on the integrity function of meridians. Meridians are thought to regulate body function through the normal flow of qi and/or blood. Disturbances in this flow are thought to cause disease, and acupuncture techniques are believed to cure disease by regulating this flow. However, it is still difficult to understand the exact meaning of qi and to evaluate the activation of meridians. Thus, more and more attention has been focused on the relationship of acupuncture and circulation. Methods: In this narrative review, the authors focus on the state of the art in acupoint activation, microcirculation response, and on investigation of mast cells, based on current literature research. Results: Altogether, 52 references are cited and discussed critically. A schematic diagram of the relationship between acupuncture stimulation, changes of microcirculation and mast cells is presented as result. Conclusion: The block diagram presented in this review article shows that mast cells might play an important role in circulation response after acupoint stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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266 KiB  
Article
Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts
by Lianet Monzote, Abel Piñón and William N. Setzer
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 32-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010032 - 19 Nov 2014
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6346
Abstract
A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess [...] Read more.
A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ³ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
758 KiB  
Article
RegentK and Physiotherapy—Electrodermal Mapping
by Gerhard Litscher, Daniela Litscher, Michael Ofner, Ingrid Gaischek and Daniela-Eugenia Malliga
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 22-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010022 - 30 Sep 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5456
Abstract
Background: Within this study, a new system which measures and analyzes electrical skin impedance in 48 channels within a 2.5 × 3.5 cm matrix is used in rehabilitation medicine for the first time. Methods: Electrodermal activity was measured in 20 patients before and [...] Read more.
Background: Within this study, a new system which measures and analyzes electrical skin impedance in 48 channels within a 2.5 × 3.5 cm matrix is used in rehabilitation medicine for the first time. Methods: Electrodermal activity was measured in 20 patients before and after two different non-surgical treatments of a completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. The first treatment, RegentK, was developed by Mohamed Khalifa, the second is a standard physiotherapy. Results: The patients in the two groups were age-matched, and all demographic data showed no significant differences. It was interesting that electrodermal activity was significantly decreased only after RegentK. Conclusion: We conclude that not only local effects of pressure application are responsible for these results, rather as yet unknown neurovegetative mechanisms have to be taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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1034 KiB  
Article
Temperature Measurements in Rehabilitation in Patients with Completely Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament before and after RegentK and Physiotherapy
by Gerhard Litscher, Daniela Litscher, Michael Ofner, Ingrid Gaischek and Daniela-Eugenia Malliga
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 12-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010012 - 16 Jul 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5969
Abstract
Acute skin surface temperature effects on the knee were investigated after a manual therapy developed by Mohamed Khalifa (RegentK) compared to standard physiotherapy in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Twenty patients participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to [...] Read more.
Acute skin surface temperature effects on the knee were investigated after a manual therapy developed by Mohamed Khalifa (RegentK) compared to standard physiotherapy in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Twenty patients participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to group A (receiving RegentK) or group B (physiotherapy). Each group consisted of 10 patients. Temperature values were registered on four spots (three on the knee, one on the foot) of the injured and the healthy leg (control). Skin temperature increased significantly after RegentK on all sites of the injured leg, but after physiotherapy only the measurement spots on the knee showed significant increases. After RegentK the temperature had also increased significantly on the control leg, whereas in group B, the results were not significant. Experimental and clinical testing of technical equipment, e.g., infrared thermography, for ACL injuries is important for a better understanding of the different physiological/pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different therapy approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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398 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression
by Hisahiro Kai, Takuichi Fuse, Hisato Kunitake, Kazuhiro Morishita and Koji Matsuno
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 3-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010003 - 30 Jun 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5537
Abstract
The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The [...] Read more.
The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry (V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry (V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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114 KiB  
Editorial
Innovation in Medicine
by Gerhard Litscher
Medicines 2014, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines1010001 - 10 Jun 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4111
Abstract
Medicine and innovation: these terms have always been inseparable. In each phase of medical history, the continuous expansion of medical knowledge and the development of technical solutions have gone hand in hand. Interdisciplinarity has also played an important role since the beginning. Integrative [...] Read more.
Medicine and innovation: these terms have always been inseparable. In each phase of medical history, the continuous expansion of medical knowledge and the development of technical solutions have gone hand in hand. Interdisciplinarity has also played an important role since the beginning. Integrative medicine has become the driving force behind the latest innovations in medicine over recent years. [...] Full article
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