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Strategies for Sustainable Substitution of Livestock Meat

School of Public Health, Jilin Medical University, Jilin 132013, China
Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46300, Pakistan
Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1227;
Received: 12 August 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Changes and Global Warming—the Future of Foods)
The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly discernible everywhere, and initiatives have been taken worldwide to mitigate climate change. In agriculture, particularly meat production from the livestock sector is known to contribute to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) that drive climate change. Thus, to mitigate climate impact, strategies that include a shift in consumption patterns, technological advancements and reduction in food wastes/losses have been discussed. In this review, strategies that focus on meat consumption patterns are evaluated from the technological feasibility, environmental impact and consumer acceptance viewpoints. While plant-based substitutes have efficient nutrient conversion and lower GHG emissions, consumer perception, cost, and other trade-offs exist. Although cultured meat precludes the need of any animals and large land areas, its environmental impact is not clear and is contingent upon production systems and the achievement of decarbonization. Reducing wastes and the re-use of meat processing by-products have the potential to lower the environmental impact. Valuable proteins, heat, electricity and biofuels extracted from wastes and by-products not only reduce the disposal of wastes but also offset some GHG emissions. Perception related challenges that exist for all substitution strategies require specific consumer target marketing strategies. Policy measures such as taxation of meat products and subsidies for alternatives are also met with challenges, thereby requiring reforms or new policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: livestock; meat consumption; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change livestock; meat consumption; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, G.; Ameer, K.; Kim, H.; Lee, E.-J.; Ramachandraiah, K.; Hong, G.-P. Strategies for Sustainable Substitution of Livestock Meat. Foods 2020, 9, 1227.

AMA Style

Jiang G, Ameer K, Kim H, Lee E-J, Ramachandraiah K, Hong G-P. Strategies for Sustainable Substitution of Livestock Meat. Foods. 2020; 9(9):1227.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Guihun; Ameer, Kashif; Kim, Honggyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Ramachandraiah, Karna; Hong, Geun-Pyo. 2020. "Strategies for Sustainable Substitution of Livestock Meat" Foods 9, no. 9: 1227.

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