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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Seven Food Additives and Caffeine in Powdered Drinks

1
Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
National Agency of Drug and Food Control, District of Kupang, R.A. Kartini street, Kota Baru, Kelapa Lima, Kupang 85228, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
4
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, IVAGRO, University of Cadiz, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario (CeiA3), Campus del Rio San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081119
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 8 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography Analysis Applied in Food Science)
The usage of food additives must respect the general legislation in force in the country and requires a reliable analytical method for surveillance. This research aimed to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of seven food additives and caffeine in powdered drinks. Three factors likely to affect the chromatographic separation, namely, mobile phase composition at the beginning (x1, 0–10% of the amount of methanol in the phosphate buffer) and the end (x2, 60–100% of the amount of methanol in the phosphate buffer) of the gradient program and pH (x3, 3–7), were evaluated with the aid of a Box–Behnken Design (BBD). Subsequently, multi-response optimizations for chromatographic resolutions (Rs) and analysis time were performed using the response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the desirability function (DF). Complete separation (Rs > 1.5) of seven food additives and caffeine was achieved in less than 16 min by applying 8.5% methanol in the phosphate buffer at the beginning and 90% at the end of the gradient program, in pH 6.7. The developed method was validated with low limits of detection (ranging from 1.16 mg kg−1 (sodium saccharin) to 3.00 mg kg−1 (acesulfame potassium)), low limits of quantification (ranging from 3.86 mg kg−1 (sodium saccharin) to 10.02 mg kg−1 (acesulfame potassium)), high precision (CV < 4%), and high accuracy (recoveries from 95 to 101% at 80, 100, and 120% of the target concentration). The method was successfully used to assess the seven food additives and caffeine in commercially available powdered drinks. View Full-Text
Keywords: food additives; HPLC; multi-response optimization; Box–Behnken Design; powdered drinks food additives; HPLC; multi-response optimization; Box–Behnken Design; powdered drinks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Imanulkhan; Setyaningsih, W.; Rohman, A.; Palma, M. Development and Validation of HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Seven Food Additives and Caffeine in Powdered Drinks. Foods 2020, 9, 1119.

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