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Article

Effects of Ultra-Sonication and Agitation on Bioactive Compounds and Structure of Amaranth Extract

1
Department of Food Processing and Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5400, Bangladesh
2
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
3
School of Public Health, Jilin Medical University, Jilin, Changchun 130026, China
4
Department of Food Science and Technology and BK 21 PlusProgram, Graduate School of Chonnam National University, Gwanju 61186, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081116
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Amaranth is an excellent source of various bioactive compounds that could be beneficial in the prevention of some human diseases. This study investigated the extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from amaranth using ultra-sonication and agitation at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Color L* values showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at 70 °C between ultra-sonication and agitation. Ultra-sonication temperature had significant effect on L* and a* values whereas agitation temperature did not have a significant effect on L*, a* and b* values. No significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in terms of total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH•+, ABTS+ scavenging activity, betacyanins, betaxanthin and betanicaicd between ultra-sonication and agitation. However, temperature had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on total phenol (8.64–10.598 mg/g), DPPH+scavenging activity (84.36–94.44%), betacyanins (4585.95–5325.32 mg/100 g), betaxanthin (1312.56–1524.06 mg/100 g) and betalamic acid (1408.15–1790.22 mg/100 g) in ultra-sonication. Higher temperature (70 °C) showed greater amount of arbutin and hydroxybenzoic acid than those of lower temperature (30 °C) for both extraction methods. Meanwhile, temperature did not affect vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid for both samples. Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometry showed that ultra-sonication and agitation resulted in similar effect on the structure of amaranth extracts. Higher temperature was correlated with bioactive compounds, which were observed by principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, agitation at 70 °C could be used as an alternative for ultra-sonication to improve the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of amaranth. In addition, agitation and ultra-sonication techniques might be served as an alternative of conventional technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amaranth; ultra-sonication; agitation; Fourier-transformed infrared; Antioxidants properties Amaranth; ultra-sonication; agitation; Fourier-transformed infrared; Antioxidants properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, M.; Ramachandraiah, K.; Jiang, G.-H.; Eun, J.B. Effects of Ultra-Sonication and Agitation on Bioactive Compounds and Structure of Amaranth Extract. Foods 2020, 9, 1116. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081116

AMA Style

Ahmed M, Ramachandraiah K, Jiang G-H, Eun JB. Effects of Ultra-Sonication and Agitation on Bioactive Compounds and Structure of Amaranth Extract. Foods. 2020; 9(8):1116. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Maruf, Karna Ramachandraiah, Gui-Hun Jiang, and Jong Bang Eun. 2020. "Effects of Ultra-Sonication and Agitation on Bioactive Compounds and Structure of Amaranth Extract" Foods 9, no. 8: 1116. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081116

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