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Article

Effect of Physical and Chemical Treatments on Viability, Sub-Lethal Injury, and Release of Cellular Components from Bacillus clausii and Bacillus coagulans Spores and Cells

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources and Engineering (DAFNE), University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The affiliation was DAFNE at the time of research; now the author is not involved in any organization.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121814
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 26 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Controlling and Analysis Food Microbes)
Bacterial spores are of concern to the food industry due to their ability to survive processing and their potential to subsequently germinate and grow in food. In this paper, two strains belonging to the genus Bacillus (B. clausii DSM 8716 and B. coagulans DSM 1) were studied under in vitro conditions after the application of essential oils, and physical treatments; cells and spores’ susceptibility, the extent of sub-lethal injury and the release of cellular components as a function of treatment and targets (cells, spores, old or activated spores) were studied. The highest antimicrobial effect was found for cells treated through citrus extract, while both essential oils and physical treatments could cause a sub-lethal injury on the surviving cells and spores; in addition, the spores of B. coagulans released dipicolinic acid (DPA) and proteins. Sub-lethal injury should be considered when designing a food processing treatment, because injured microorganisms could either repair the damage or be inactivated with a different effect on microbial stability of foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: age of spores; release; proteins; DPA; injury age of spores; release; proteins; DPA; injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bevilacqua, A.; Petruzzi, L.; Sinigaglia, M.; Speranza, B.; Campaniello, D.; Ciuffreda, E.; Corbo, M.R. Effect of Physical and Chemical Treatments on Viability, Sub-Lethal Injury, and Release of Cellular Components from Bacillus clausii and Bacillus coagulans Spores and Cells. Foods 2020, 9, 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121814

AMA Style

Bevilacqua A, Petruzzi L, Sinigaglia M, Speranza B, Campaniello D, Ciuffreda E, Corbo MR. Effect of Physical and Chemical Treatments on Viability, Sub-Lethal Injury, and Release of Cellular Components from Bacillus clausii and Bacillus coagulans Spores and Cells. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bevilacqua, Antonio, Leonardo Petruzzi, Milena Sinigaglia, Barbara Speranza, Daniela Campaniello, Emanuela Ciuffreda, and Maria R. Corbo. 2020. "Effect of Physical and Chemical Treatments on Viability, Sub-Lethal Injury, and Release of Cellular Components from Bacillus clausii and Bacillus coagulans Spores and Cells" Foods 9, no. 12: 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121814

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