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Moment of Bentonite Addition, Co-Addition of Tannins, and Bentonite Type Affect the Differential Affinity of Pathogenesis-Related Grape Proteins towards Bentonite during Fermentation

by 1,2,* and 1
1
Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Karla Huguesa 8, HR-52440 Poreč, Croatia
2
Centre of Excellence for Biodiversity and Molecular Plant Breeding, Svetošimunska 25, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111534
Received: 7 October 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 23 October 2020 / Published: 25 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Proteins and Peptides)
To test the effect of the moment of bentonite addition, co-addition of tannins, and bentonite type on the differential affinity of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins towards bentonite during grape must fermentation, three separate experiments were set up. PR proteins in the obtained wines were analyzed by reverse phase and size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The most significant reduction of bentonite dose and PR protein concentration was achieved by applying bentonite in the last third of fermentation. Particular thaumatin-like proteins (TLP) and proteins with lower molecular mass in general were more affected than others, while TLPs were more affected than chitinases. Exogenous enological tannins interacted with particular PR proteins, mostly TLPs, and lowered the total bentonite dose required. The combined application of tannins and bentonite in fermentation removed more PR proteins than bentonite alone, but did not achieve a synergistic effect in reducing the bentonite dose. Various bentonite types, including two Na-activated bentonites, an activated Na bentonite with specifically adsorbed silica, and an active Na-Ca bentonite, exhibited differential affinity towards different PR proteins. The results obtained could be used in developing wine fining protocols which combine treatments with complementary affinity for adsorption and removal of PR proteins, and in this way achieve greater efficiency of bentonite fining by reducing its total dose, which is of significant interest to the wine industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine; pathogenesis-related proteins; bentonite; fining; tannins wine; pathogenesis-related proteins; bentonite; fining; tannins
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Lukić, I.; Horvat, I. Moment of Bentonite Addition, Co-Addition of Tannins, and Bentonite Type Affect the Differential Affinity of Pathogenesis-Related Grape Proteins towards Bentonite during Fermentation. Foods 2020, 9, 1534.

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