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A Review of Factors Affecting Anthocyanin Bioavailability: Possible Implications for the Inter-Individual Variability

1
Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir 35100, Turkey
3
Nofima, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, N-1430 Ås, Norway
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Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Put Duilova 11, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Faculty of food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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INRA, Université Clermont-Auvergne, Human Nutrition Unit, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
7
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research. Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 15 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Food and Health)
Anthocyanins are dietary bioactive compounds showing a range of beneficial effects against cardiovascular, neurological, and eye conditions. However, there is, as for other bioactive compounds in food, a high inter and intra-individual variation in the response to anthocyanin intake that in many cases leads to contradictory results in human trials. This variability could be caused at two levels, one at the bioavailability level and the other at the effect and mechanisms of action. In this context, we have thoroughly reviewed the scientific literature on anthocyanins variability caused by variation in bioavailability. Based on the literature reviewed, we have concluded that the variability in anthocyanins bioavailability might be produced by the lack of homogeneity introduced at three different levels: food matrix and food processing, enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism and transport, and anthocyanin metabolizing gut microbiota. However, it should be noted that the literature on anthocyanins bioavailability considering inter or intra-individual variability is still very scarce, which makes it difficult to reach any firm conclusion on the main metabolizing enzymes or bacteria that would be responsible for the variability in anthocyanin bioavailability. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; variability; bioavailability; food processing; metabolism; microbiota anthocyanin; variability; bioavailability; food processing; metabolism; microbiota
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Eker, M.E.; Aaby, K.; Budic-Leto, I.; Rimac Brnčić, S.; El, S.N.; Karakaya, S.; Simsek, S.; Manach, C.; Wiczkowski, W.; de Pascual-Teresa, S. A Review of Factors Affecting Anthocyanin Bioavailability: Possible Implications for the Inter-Individual Variability. Foods 2020, 9, 2.

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