Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with principal component-linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA), was used for tracing the geographical origin of durum wheat samples. The classification model PC-LDA was applied to discriminate durum wheat samples originating from Northern, Central, and Southern Italy (n
= 181), and to differentiate Italian durum wheat samples from those cultivated in other countries across the world (n
= 134). Developed models were validated on a separated set of wheat samples. Different pre-treatments of spectral data and different spectral regions were selected and compared in terms of overall discrimination (OD) rates obtained in validation. The LDA models were able to correctly discriminate durum Italian wheat samples according to their geographical origin (i.e., North, Central, and South) with OD rates of up of 96.7%. Better results were obtained when LDA models were applied to the discrimination of Italian durum wheat samples from those originating from other countries across the world, having OD rates of up to 100%. The excellent results obtained herein clearly indicate the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy to be used for the discrimination of durum wheat samples according to their geographical origin.
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