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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Spoilage Microbiota of Hake Fillets Packaged Under a Modified Atmosphere (MAP) Rich in CO2 (50% CO2/50% N2) and Stored at Different Temperatures

Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón– IA2, Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Departamento I+D+i, Alquizvetek S.L, Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Departamento de Patología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 489;
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 13 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Shelf-Life Extension of Food Products)
The aim of this study was to characterize the spoilage microbiota of hake fillets stored under modified atmospheres (MAP) (50% CO2/50% N2) at different temperatures using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and to compare the results with those obtained using traditional microbiology techniques. The results obtained indicate that, as expected, higher storage temperatures lead to shorter shelf-lives (the time of sensory rejection by panelists). Thus, the shelf-life decreased from six days to two days for Batch A when the storage temperature increased from 1 to 7 °C, and from five to two days—when the same increase in storage temperature was compared—for Batch B. In all cases, the trimethylamine (TMA) levels measured at the time of sensory rejection of hake fillets exceeded the recommended threshold of 5 mg/100 g. Photobacterium and Psychrobacter were the most abundant genera at the time of spoilage in all but one of the samples analyzed: Thus, Photobacterium represented between 19% and 46%, and Psychrobacter between 27% and 38% of the total microbiota. They were followed by Moritella, Carnobacterium, Shewanella, and Vibrio, whose relative order varied depending on the sample/batch analyzed. These results highlight the relevance of Photobacterium as a spoiler of hake stored in atmospheres rich in CO2. Further research will be required to elucidate if other microorganisms, such as Psychrobacter, Moritella, or Carnobacterium, also contribute to spoilage of hake when stored under MAP. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish; Photobacterium; shelf-life; high-throughput gene sequencing fish; Photobacterium; shelf-life; high-throughput gene sequencing
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Antunes-Rohling, A.; Calero, S.; Halaihel, N.; Marquina, P.; Raso, J.; Calanche, J.; Beltrán, J.A.; Álvarez, I.; Cebrián, G. Characterization of the Spoilage Microbiota of Hake Fillets Packaged Under a Modified Atmosphere (MAP) Rich in CO2 (50% CO2/50% N2) and Stored at Different Temperatures. Foods 2019, 8, 489.

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