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Open AccessArticle

Thermal Transitions of Cocoa Butter: A Novel Characterization Method by Temperature Modulation

1
Nanoscience and Advanced Materials Graduate Program (PPG-Nano), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Santo André 09210-580, Brazil
2
Center of Engineering, Modeling, and Applied Science (CECS), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Santo André 09210-580, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100449
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
For the first time, the novel experimental technique Temperature Modulated Optical Refractometry (TMOR) was employed for cocoa butter thermal transitions characterization. The average refractive index (NMEAN), the volume (v) change, and the volumetric expansion coefficient ( β q ) as well as the dynamic quantities β and β (real and imaginary volumetric expansion coefficient, respectively) were monitored during cooling and heating and compared to the heat flow curves obtained via the standard technique dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC). The investigation of these quantities showed that TMOR analysis can yield not only thermal transitions temperatures that are comparable to DSC results, but also some new thermal events that are not detected by DSC. This outcome suggests that TMOR might provide some additional insights on cocoa butter melting and crystallization by means of frequency-dependent measurements due to temperature modulation. This new information that can be accessed during temperature ramps might provide a deeper insight into thermal behavior of fat-based foods, evidencing TMOR value as a tool for thermal transitions investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa butter; thermal transitions; refractive index; TMOR cocoa butter; thermal transitions; refractive index; TMOR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gouveia, J.R.; de Lira Lixandrão, K.C.; Tavares, L.B.; Lixandrão Fernando, P.H.; Garcia, G.E.S.; dos Santos, D.J. Thermal Transitions of Cocoa Butter: A Novel Characterization Method by Temperature Modulation. Foods 2019, 8, 449.

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