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Open AccessArticle

Metabolic Stability of D-Allulose in Biorelevant Media and Hepatocytes: Comparison with Fructose and Erythritol

1
College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
3
Food Research Institute, CJ CheilJedang Corp., Suwon 16495, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100448
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
D-allulose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is a rare monosaccharide used as a food ingredient or a sweetener. In the present study, the in vitro metabolic stability of D-allulose was examined in biorelevant media, that is, simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) containing digestive enzymes, and in cryopreserved human and rat hepatocytes. The hepatocyte metabolic stabilities of D-allulose were also investigated and compared with those of fructose and erythritol (a sugar-alcohol with no calorific value). D-allulose was highly stable in SGF (97.8% remained after 60 min) and in FaSSIF (101.3% remained after 240 min), indicating it is neither pH-labile nor degraded in the gastrointestinal tract. D-allulose also exhibited high levels of stability in human and rat hepatocytes (94.5–96.8% remained after 240 min), whereas fructose was rapidly metabolized (43.1–52.6% remained), which suggested these two epimers are metabolized in completely different ways in the liver. The effects of D-allulose on glucose and fructose levels were negligible in hepatocytes. Erythritol was stable in human and rat hepatocytes (102.1–102.9% remained after 240 min). Intravenous pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed D-allulose was eliminated with a mean half-life of 72.2 min and a systemic clearance of 15.8 mL/min/kg. Taken together, our results indicate that D-allulose is not metabolized in the liver, and thus, unlikely to contribute to hepatic energy production. View Full-Text
Keywords: D-allulose; D-fructose; erythritol; metabolic stability; biorelevant media; hepatocytes D-allulose; D-fructose; erythritol; metabolic stability; biorelevant media; hepatocytes
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Maeng, H.-J.; Yoon, J.-H.; Chun, K.-H.; Kim, S.T.; Jang, D.-J.; Park, J.-E.; Kim, Y.H.; Kim, S.-B.; Kim, Y.C. Metabolic Stability of D-Allulose in Biorelevant Media and Hepatocytes: Comparison with Fructose and Erythritol. Foods 2019, 8, 448.

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