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Salmonella, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices
Article

Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on Whole Papaya during Storage and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Generated with HCl, Malic Acid or Lactic Acid on Whole Papaya

Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Afonso Lourenco, Catherine Burgess, Timothy Ells and Susana Casal
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081871
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 12 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens and Food Safety)
Papaya-associated foodborne illness outbreaks have been frequently reported worldwide. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on whole papaya during storage and sanitizing process. Fresh green papayas were inoculated with approximately 7 log CFU of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes and stored at 21 or 7 °C for 14 days. Bacteria counts were determined on day 0, 1, 7, 10 and 14. Fresh green papayas inoculated with approximately 8 log CFU of the bacteria were treated for 5 min with 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2). The ClO2 solutions were generated by mixing sodium chlorite with an acid, which was HCl, lactic acid or malic acid. The detection limit of the enumeration method was 2.40 log CFU per papaya. At the end of storage period, S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes grew by 1.88 and 1.24 log CFU on papayas at 21 °C, respectively. Both bacteria maintained their initial population at inoculation on papayas stored at 7 °C. Higher concentrations of ClO2 reduced more bacteria on papaya. 10 ppm ClO2, regardless the acid used to generate the solutions, inactivated S. Typhimurium to undetectable level on papaya. 10 ppm ClO2 generated with HCl, lactic acid and malic acid reduced L. monocytogenes by 4.40, 6.54 and 8.04 log CFU on papaya, respectively. Overall, ClO2 generated with malic acid showed significantly higher bacterial reduction than ClO2 generated with HCl or lactic acid. These results indicate there is a risk of survival and growth for S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes on papaya at commercial storage conditions. Aqueous ClO2 generated with malic acid shows effectiveness in inactivating the pathogenic bacteria on papaya. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole papaya; Salmonella Typhimurium; Listeria monocytogenes; survival; aqueous chlorine dioxide; malic acid; shelf-life whole papaya; Salmonella Typhimurium; Listeria monocytogenes; survival; aqueous chlorine dioxide; malic acid; shelf-life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, L.; Li, Y. Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on Whole Papaya during Storage and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Generated with HCl, Malic Acid or Lactic Acid on Whole Papaya. Foods 2021, 10, 1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081871

AMA Style

Dong L, Li Y. Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on Whole Papaya during Storage and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Generated with HCl, Malic Acid or Lactic Acid on Whole Papaya. Foods. 2021; 10(8):1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081871

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Lianger, and Yong Li. 2021. "Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on Whole Papaya during Storage and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Generated with HCl, Malic Acid or Lactic Acid on Whole Papaya" Foods 10, no. 8: 1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081871

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