Presence of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Food Contact Materials (FCM) and Its Migration to Food
- Non-polymeric perfluoroalkylated substances:
- Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAA) most representatives:
- Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), also known as perfluorocarboxylic acids or perfluoroalkanoic acids, have the general chemical formula CnF2n+1COOH. Some PFCAs are products of the abiotic or biotic degradation of certain PFAS. Perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) is the most frequently discussed compound (Figure 2). The ammonium salt, ammonium perfluorooctane (APFO), has been used in the production of fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), commonly known as Teflon®, which is used in kitchen utensils such as frying pans and pots due to its low coefficient of friction and its impermeability. Other acids are perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), manufactured primarily for use as a fluorinated surfactant; perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) .
- Some perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSA) are perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (Figure 2). PFOS has been the most studied since it has been found in biota worldwide. Besides, both PFOS and its salts have been classified as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. Furthermore, it has been added to Annex B of the list of persistent organic contaminants of the Stockholm Convention, therefore its production and use is restricted .
- Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPIAs) are surfactants manufactured for a range of consumer and industrial uses. PFPAs have been widely detected in environmental waters.
- Perfluoroalkane sulfonamide (PFASAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is the major raw material for surfactant and surface protection products
- Perfluoroalkyl iodide (PFAIs): It is a family of fluorotelomers whose degradation is a potential source of PFCA. One example is perfluorohexyl iodide (PFHxI), which chemical structure is C6F13I.
- Non-polymeric polyfluoroalkylated substances:
- Perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, such as N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-MeFOSA), N-ethyl perfluorobutane sulfonamide (EtFBSA), and N-butyl perflorooctane sulfonamide (BuFOSA).
- Fluorotelomer substances:
- Fluorotelomer alcohols of different chain lengths (FTOH) provide water and oil repellency and are used in materials in contact with food as non-stick agents. For example, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctan-1-ol (6:2 FTOH), 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decan-1-ol (8:2 FTOH) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecanol (10:2 FTOH). In the “X:Y” designation used for naming fluorotelomer substances, X is the number of perfluorinated C atoms, while Y is the number of non-fluorinated C atoms that originate from the commercial synthesis.
- Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters, polyfluoroalkyl phosphates, and fluorotelomer phosphates (PAP) may be referred as polyalkyl phosphoric acid monoesters or fluorotelomer monophosphates (monoPAPs), and polyalkyl phosphoric acid diesters or fluorotelomer diphosphates (diPAPs). These compounds have been used as waterproofing agents for food contact paper . Their approval as defoaming adjuvant in pesticide formulations has been rescinded .
3. PFAS in Food Contact Materials
|Country||Compound||Type of Sample||Origin of Sample||Method of |
|Popcorn bags, baking paper, box of chips, sandwich wrap, hamburger box||Local shops and fast-food restaurants||LC-MS||PFOA: 9.1 × 106 g kg−1|||
|EEUU||PFOA||PTFE cookware, popcorn bags, PTFE film/sealant tape.||Not specified||LC-MS|
|4–290 μg kg−1|
PTFE film/sealant tape: 1800 μg kg−1
|Bags of popcorn, sandwich bags||Not specified||UHPLC-QTOF||PFOS < LOD|
PFOA: 22.1 and 12.9 ng dm−2
|Baking paper, fast-food packaging, boxes of pizza, popcorn bags, etc.||Distributors and retailers in Norway||LC-MS/MS||FTOH: 1.3 μg kg−1 of food|||
|Fast-food packaging, sandwiches, cups, ice cream containers, baking paper, popcorn bags, etc.||Athens market and fast-food restaurants in Greece.||PLE, LC-MS/MS||PFBA: 275.84 μg kg−1 PFHxA: 341.21 μg kg−1 PFHpA: 5.19 μg kg−1|||
|Bags of popcorn, materials labelled as ecological, cupcake packaging, etc.||Beijing retail market and online||UPLC-MS/MS|
|Average concentration of total FTOH: 2990 μg kg−1|||
4. PFAS Migration into Food
4.1. PFAS Migration Levels and Food
4.1.1. Fat Content
4.1.2. Moisture Content
4.1.4. Salt Content
4.2. PFAS Migration Levels and PFAS Chemistry
4.3. PFAS Migration Levels and Food Contact Conditions
4.3.1. Time and Temperature
4.3.2. Repeated Use
|Country||Compound||Type of Samples||Origin of Samples||Method of |
|Frying pans, baking utensils grills, baking paper||Large and local markets||LC-MS/MS||N-heptane, 50% ethanol, water and 4% acetic||PFODA: 3.05 μg L−1 in n-heptane PFNA: 2.12 μg/L in 50% ethanol|||
|Paper bags||Local markets||UPLC-MS/MS||Tenax®|
Whole milk and low-fat milk
|Increased migration in whole milk.|
Migration to Tenax® was 8% at 80 °C, 10% at 120 °C and 25% at 160 °C
|Popcorn bags||Not specified||LC/MS|
|Popcorn oil, Myglyol||Migration levels of fluortelomers of 1.4 mg kg−1 before and 2.1 mg kg−1 after heating|||
|EEUU||PFOS||Non-stick paper||EEUU retail markets||LC/MS||Ethanol/water (10, 20, 25 and 30% ethanol)||Increased migration in emulsified foods|||
|Germany||FTOH||Paper Muffins||Not specified||GC/CI-MS||Tenax|
|The higher the humidity the higher the FTOH migration|||
|Tefal kitchen utensils||Not specified||LC-MS||Fresh tomatoes as acidic foods|
White beans as a staple food
|Increased migration in acidic foods|
Increased migration in salted foods.
Increased migration as the number of exhibitions increases.
|Popcorn bags, materials labelled as ecological, cupcake packaging, etc.||Beijing retail markets and online||UPLC-MS/MS|
|Water, 10%, 30% and 50% ethanol||Higher migration when the fluorine chain is smaller. |
Sum of 15 PFCA 0.006 μg cm−2 and 0.3 μg cm−2 for 7 FTOH
|Distributors and retailers in Norway||LC-MS/MS||50% ethanol: water||Increased migration with increasing temperature|||
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Ramírez Carnero, A.; Lestido-Cardama, A.; Vazquez Loureiro, P.; Barbosa-Pereira, L.; Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós, A.; Sendón, R. Presence of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Food Contact Materials (FCM) and Its Migration to Food. Foods 2021, 10, 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071443
Ramírez Carnero A, Lestido-Cardama A, Vazquez Loureiro P, Barbosa-Pereira L, Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós A, Sendón R. Presence of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Food Contact Materials (FCM) and Its Migration to Food. Foods. 2021; 10(7):1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071443Chicago/Turabian Style
Ramírez Carnero, Arabela, Antía Lestido-Cardama, Patricia Vazquez Loureiro, Letricia Barbosa-Pereira, Ana Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós, and Raquel Sendón. 2021. "Presence of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Food Contact Materials (FCM) and Its Migration to Food" Foods 10, no. 7: 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071443