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Article

Functionalization of Enzymatically Treated Apple Pomace from Juice Production by Extrusion Processing

1
Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Chair of Food Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Institute of Applied Biosciences, Department of Food Chemistry and Phytochemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Danyang Ying
Foods 2021, 10(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030485
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
Food by-products can be used as natural and sustainable food ingredients. However, a modification is needed to improve the technofunctional properties according to the specific needs of designated applications. A lab-scale twin-screw extruder was used to process enzymatically treated apple pomace from commercial fruit juice production. To vary the range of the thermomechanical treatment, various screw speeds (200, 600, 1000 min−1), and screw configurations were applied to the raw material. Detailed chemical and functional analyses were performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the impact of the extrusion processing on apple pomace composition and technofunctional properties as well as structures of individual polymers. Extrusion at moderate thermomechanical conditions increased the water absorption, swelling, and viscosity of the material. An increase in thermomechanical stress resulted in a higher water solubility index, but negatively affected the water absorption index, viscosity, and swelling. Scanning electron microscopy showed an extrusion-processing-related disruption of the cell wall. Dietary fiber analysis revealed an increase of soluble dietary fiber from 12.6 to 17.2 g/100 g dry matter at maximum thermo-mechanical treatment. Dietary fiber polysaccharide analysis demonstrated compositional changes, mainly in the insoluble dietary fiber fraction. In short, pectin polysaccharides seem to be susceptible to thermo-mechanical stress, especially arabinans as neutral side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant cell walls; by-products; dietary fiber; non-starch polysaccharides; upcycling; valorization; rheological properties; viscosity plant cell walls; by-products; dietary fiber; non-starch polysaccharides; upcycling; valorization; rheological properties; viscosity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmid, V.; Trabert, A.; Keller, J.; Bunzel, M.; Karbstein, H.P.; Emin, M.A. Functionalization of Enzymatically Treated Apple Pomace from Juice Production by Extrusion Processing. Foods 2021, 10, 485. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030485

AMA Style

Schmid V, Trabert A, Keller J, Bunzel M, Karbstein HP, Emin MA. Functionalization of Enzymatically Treated Apple Pomace from Juice Production by Extrusion Processing. Foods. 2021; 10(3):485. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030485

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmid, Vera, Antje Trabert, Judith Keller, Mirko Bunzel, Heike P. Karbstein, and M. A. Emin 2021. "Functionalization of Enzymatically Treated Apple Pomace from Juice Production by Extrusion Processing" Foods 10, no. 3: 485. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030485

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