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Open AccessArticle

Soft Mango Firmness Assessment Based on Rayleigh Waves Generated by a Laser-Induced Plasma Shock Wave Technique

1
Division of Mechanical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548, Japan
2
Division of Human Mechanical Systems and Design, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
3
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mladen Brnčić and Urszula Tylewicz
Foods 2021, 10(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020323
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Many methods based on acoustic vibration characteristics have been studied to indirectly assess fruit ripeness via fruit firmness. Among these, the frequency of the 0S2 vibration mode measured on the equator has been examined, but soft-flesh fruit do not show the 0S2 vibration mode. In this study, a Rayleigh wave is generated on a soft mango fruit using the impulse excitation force generated by a laser-induced plasma shock wave technique. Then, the flesh firmness of mangoes is assessed in a non-contact and non-destructive manner by observing the Rayleigh wave propagation velocity because it is correlated with the firmness (shear elasticity), density, and Poisson’s ratio of an object. If the changes in the density and Poisson’s ratio are small enough to be ignored during storage, then the Rayleigh wave propagation velocity is strongly correlated to fruit firmness. Here, we measure the Rayleigh wave propagation velocity and investigate the effect of storage time. Specifically, we investigate the changes in firmness caused by ripening. The Rayleigh wave propagation velocity on the equator of Kent mangoes tended to decrease by over 4% in 96 h. The Rayleigh wave measured on two different lines propagated independent distance and showed a different change rate of propagation velocity during 96-h storage. Furthermore, we consider the reliability of our method by investigating the interaction of a mango seed on the Rayleigh wave propagation velocity. View Full-Text
Keywords: firmness; laser-induced plasma; mango; non-contact non-destructive excitation; Rayleigh wave propagation velocity; shock wave firmness; laser-induced plasma; mango; non-contact non-destructive excitation; Rayleigh wave propagation velocity; shock wave
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arai, N.; Miyake, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Kajiwara, I.; Hosoya, N. Soft Mango Firmness Assessment Based on Rayleigh Waves Generated by a Laser-Induced Plasma Shock Wave Technique. Foods 2021, 10, 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020323

AMA Style

Arai N, Miyake M, Yamamoto K, Kajiwara I, Hosoya N. Soft Mango Firmness Assessment Based on Rayleigh Waves Generated by a Laser-Induced Plasma Shock Wave Technique. Foods. 2021; 10(2):323. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arai, Nayuta; Miyake, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Kengo; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Hosoya, Naoki. 2021. "Soft Mango Firmness Assessment Based on Rayleigh Waves Generated by a Laser-Induced Plasma Shock Wave Technique" Foods 10, no. 2: 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020323

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