Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) is a novel and green sample preparation technique introduced in 2014. FPSE utilizes a natural or synthetic permeable and flexible fabric substrate chemically coated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent in the form of ultra-thin coating, which leads to a fast and sensitive micro-extraction device. The flexible FPSE requires no modification of samples and allows direct extraction of analytes. Sol-gel sorbent-coated FPSE media possesses high chemical, solvent, and thermal stability due to the strong covalent bonding between the substrate and the sol-gel sorbent. Therefore, any elution solvent can be used in a small volume, which achieves a high pre-concentration factor without requiring any solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step. Taking into consideration the complexity of the samples and the need of further minimization and automation, some new, alternative modes of the FPSE have also been developed. Therefore, FPSE has attracted the interest of the scientific community that deals with sample pre-treatment and has been successfully applied for the extraction and determination of many analytes in environmental samples as well as in food and biological samples. The objective of the current review is to present and classify the applications of FPSE according to different sample categories and to briefly show the progress, advantages, and the main principles of the proposed technique.
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