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Open AccessArticle

A Finite Element Simulation of the Active and Passive Controls of the MHD Effect on an Axisymmetric Nanofluid Flow with Thermo-Diffusion over a Radially Stretched Sheet

1
Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Dongxiang Road, Chang’an District, Xi’an 710129, China
2
School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 West Youyi Road, Xi’an 710072, China
3
College of Internet of Things Engineering, Hohai University, Changzhou Campus, Changzhou 213022, China
4
School of Energy and Power, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning west Road, Xi’an 7100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Bagh Ali and Xiaojun Yu are co-first authors.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020207
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Simulation and Computation on Dynamics of Complex Fluids)
The present study investigated the steady magnetohydrodynamics of the axisymmetric flow of a incompressible, viscous, electricity-conducting nanofluid with convective boundary conditions and thermo-diffusion over a radially stretched surface. The nanoparticles’ volume fraction was passively controlled on the boundary, rather than actively controlled. The governing non-linear partial differential equations were transformed into a system of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations with the aid of similarity transformations which were solved numerically, using the very efficient variational finite element method. The coefficient of skin friction and rate of heat transfer, and an exact solution of fluid flow velocity, were contrasted with the numerical solution gotten by FEM. Excellent agreement between the numerical and exact solutions was observed. The influences of various physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and solutal and nanoparticle concentration profiles are discussed by the aid of graphs and tables. Additionally, authentication of the convergence of the numerical consequences acquired by the finite element method and the computations was acquired by decreasing the mesh level. This exploration is significant for the higher temperature of nanomaterial privileging technology.
Keywords: nanofluid; themo-diffussion; MHD; finite element method; convective surface boundary conditions nanofluid; themo-diffussion; MHD; finite element method; convective surface boundary conditions
MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, B.; Yu, X.; Sadiq, M.T.; Rehman, A.U.; Ali, L. A Finite Element Simulation of the Active and Passive Controls of the MHD Effect on an Axisymmetric Nanofluid Flow with Thermo-Diffusion over a Radially Stretched Sheet. Processes 2020, 8, 207.

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