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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Wall Ventilation on the Shock-wave/Viscous-Layer Interactions in a Mach 2.2 Intake

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India
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Processes 2020, 8(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020208
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 8 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Other Topics)
In order to achieve proficient combustion with the present technologies, the flow through an aircraft intake operating at supersonic and hypersonic Mach numbers must be decelerated to a low-subsonic level before entering the combustion chamber. High-speed intakes are generally designed to act as a flow compressor even in the absence of mechanical compressors. The reduction in flow velocity is essentially achieved by generating a series of oblique as well as normal shock waves in the external ramp region and also in the internal isolator region of the intake. Thus, these intakes are also referred to as mixed-compression intakes. Nevertheless, the benefits of shock-generated compression do not arise independently but with enormous losses because of the shockwave and boundary layer interactions (SBLIs). These interactions should be manipulated to minimize or alleviate the losses. In the present investigation a wall ventilation using a new cavity configuration (having a cross-section similar to a truncated rectangle with the top wall covered by a thin perforated surface is deployed underneath the cowl-shock impinging point of the Mach 2.2 mixed-compression intake. The intake is tested for four different contraction ratios of 1.16, 1.19, 1.22, and 1.25, with emphasis on the effect of porosity, which is varied at 10.6%, 15.7%, 18.8%, and 22.5%. The introduction of porosity on the surface covering the cavity has been proved to be beneficial in decreasing the wall static pressure substantially as compared to the plain intake. A maximum of approximately 24.2% in the reduction in pressure at the upstream proximal location of 0.48 L is achieved in the case of the wall-ventilated intake with 18.8% porosity, at the contraction ratio of 1.19. The Schlieren density field images confirm the efficacy of the 18.8% ventilation in stretching the shock trains and in decreasing the separation length. At the contraction ratios of 1.19, 1.22, and 1.25 (‘dual-mode’ contraction ratios), the controlled intakes with higher porosity reduce the pressure gradients across the shockwaves and thereby yields an ‘intake-start’ condition. However, for the uncontrolled intake, the ‘unstart’ condition emerges due to the formation of a normal shock at the cowl lip. Additionally, the cowl shock in the ‘unstart’ intake is shifted upstream because of higher downstream pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: shock wave; boundary layer; wall ventilation; cavity; porosity; static pressure; Schlieren flow visualization technique shock wave; boundary layer; wall ventilation; cavity; porosity; static pressure; Schlieren flow visualization technique
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Gunasekaran, H.; Thangaraj, T.; Jana, T.; Kaushik, M. Effects of Wall Ventilation on the Shock-wave/Viscous-Layer Interactions in a Mach 2.2 Intake. Processes 2020, 8, 208.

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